A MILLION QUESTIONS
TWO MILLION MYSTERIES
Port Townsend, Washington
Bo thru Da
The photo of Frank being Frank
is being used from January 1 to April 30, 2018
to mark new additions to this page.
The Wittlesbach-Graff diamond
from September 1 to December
TERMS FOUND ON THIS PAGE:
Bōkan亡魂ぼうこん, Bokashi, Bokusen, Bonbori, Bon no
British Museum, Buckwheat flowers, Buddha's Birthday,
Dominique Buisson, Bukan,
Camel, Chanoyu, Cha-soba, Chaya-zome,
Chigaidana, Chihaya, Chikurin,
Chi no ike jigoku,
Edoardo Chiossone, Chirimen, Chō,
Chōai, Chōbunsai Eishi, Chōchin, Chōkei-sō, Chōki-bune, Chōshi,
Chronicle of the Battle of Ichinotani,
Chrysanthemum (Kiku), Chūban, Chūnori, Chūshingura,
Dai-Nippon Rokujuyo-shu no Uchi, Daitoku-ji,
Dango, Dannoura no Tatakai
(The Battle of Dannoura),
Danshichi Kurobei, Daruma, Date,
Datehyōgo, Date kurabe okuni
Date-sagari, Datsue-ba, Dayflower (Tsuyukusa)
亡魂, 暈し, 雪洞, 盆の窪,
母子絵, 牡丹, 大英博物館,
武鑑, 仏壇, 仏像図彙,
茶の湯, 茶蕎麦, 茶屋染, 違い棚,
千早, 竹林, 畜生道, 血池地獄, 縮緬, 蝶, 丁合, 鳥文斉栄之,
提燈 / 提灯, 頂髻相, 猪牙船, 銚子, , 銚子,
鴕鳥, 大太鼓, 台金,
大根, 大根紋, 大黒,
大日本六十余州内, 大徳寺, 団子, 壇ノ浦の戦,
伊達下がり, 奪衣婆, 露草
One more note about this
page and all of the others on this site:
If two or more sources are
cited they may be completely contradictory.
I have made no attempt to
referee these differences, but have simply
repeated them for your
edification or use. Quote anything you find here
at your own risk and with a
whole lot of salt.
Click on the yellow
to go to
A departed soul or spirit,
sometimes referred to as a ghost.
Yūrei is another term for a spirit or ghost.
The Kuniyoshi image to the
left of Hōkaibō as a bōkan.
Shading or gradation
"Beside the printing of flat
masses of colour, one of the great resources of block printing is in the
power of delicate gradation in printing. The simplest way of making a
gradation from strong to pale colour is to dip one corner of a broad brush
into the colour and the other corner into water so that the water just runs
into the colour: then, by squeezing the whole width of the brush broadly
between the thumb and forefinger so that most of the water is squeezed out,
the brush is left charged with a tint gradated from side to side. The brush
is then dipped lightly into paste along its whole edge, and brushed a few
times to and fro across the block where the gradation is needed. It is easy
in this way to print a very delicately gradated tint from full colour to
white. If the pale edge of the tint is to disappear, the block should be
moistened along the surface with a sponge where the colour is to cease. ¶ A
soft edge may be given to a tint with a brush ordinarily charged if the
block is moistened with a clean sponge at the part where the tint is to
cease. This effect is often seen at the top of the sky in a Japanese
landscape print where a dark blue band of colour is printed with a soft edge
suddenly gradated to white, or sometimes the plumage of birds is printed
with sudden gradations. In fact, the method may be developed in all kinds of
ways. Often it is an advantage to print a gradation and then a flat tone
over the gradation in a second printing." Quoted from: Wood-block
Printing by F. Morley Fletcher, 1916
卜占 or 卜筮
Divination: "A Taoist-style
Bureau of Divination (Onmyō-ryō) formed part of the Imperial Court in the
Heian period. Divination to assist harvest and cultivation still forms a
part of many festivals. Methods used include futomani, heating the
shoulder-blade of a deer and reading the cracks; the popular o-mikuji
(divination by drawing lots and numbered slips of paper); archery (o-bisha,
mato-i, yabusame, o-mato-shinji) where divination is based on the angle of
the arrow in the target, smearing rice-paste on a pole and seeing how it
sticks, and sounding a small drum. In the Awaji-shima Izanagi-jingū a form
of divination called mi-kayu-ura uses hollow bamboos dipped by farmers in
boiling rice to foretell the planting and harvest, while at the Koshiō jinja,
Akita, rice paste is smeared on a three-metre pole and divination of the
crops is based on the way it sticks. Similar but more complex forms of
divination are used in the Kasuga-taisha to determine different planting
times for 54 different vegetables." Quoted from: A Popular Dictionary
of Shinto by Brian Bocking, pp. 11-12. [See our entry on
Paper covered lamp or
Mark Spahn and Wolfgang Hadamitzky in The Kanji Dictionary (8d3.2)
define bonbori as a handlamp or lampstand.
The first character 雪 means 'snow'. The second kanji character 洞 means den,
cave or grotto.
Kozuko Koizumi notes that bonbori have shades.
Bon no kubo
Nape at the hollow of
the neck: A baby's head was shaved, but if a small tuft of hair was left
growing at the nape it too was known as bon no kubo.
To the left are two
details from prints by Kunisada. Notice the subtle indications of the areas
at the back of the the head at the nape where the hair has been allowed to
A little known sub-genre of
Japanese art. Literally it means "a mother and child" painting or print. But
by extension, it has come to include any woman attendant to a child, either
a relative, friend or servant.
To the left is the cover of an
exhibition of 100 examples of mother and child images.
Tree peony motif:
Dower refers to this plant as "the sovereign of the flowers". Previously I
had read that it was "the king of flowers" and "the queen of flowers".
Eventually I finally found an explanation for this gender confusion, but for
the sake of me I can't remember where.
Brought to Japan
from China it was valued for its beauty and medicinal properties. In time
its use as a family crest "...ranked [it] almost as high as the
chrysanthemum, paulownia and hollyhock in prestige."
Elements of Japanese Design by John Dower (p. 70)
Note that the British
Museum is referred to as "daieihakubutsukan" in the kanji and kana to the
We have added this entry because among other the British Museum owns prints
by Kokei. Click on the #1
to see our entry on that artist.
One of the great things I
discovered recently is that many of the images posted by contributors to http://commons.wikimedia.org/ have been
placed in the public domain. This makes it possible for to post images which
would otherwise be covered by copyright exclusivity. What a boon! This
particular image was posted by Stormnight. We are grateful for this person's
Above is a picture, a
breathtaking picture of the reading room. While it has little to no direct
connection with Japanese prints it is so stupendous I couldn't let it go
unpublished thanks to the generosity of the photographer, Dilliff. Bravo
The image to the left is by
Andrew Dunn. He has also posted it at wikimedia.org and offered it for
general use. Thanks to Andrew too.
The British Museum has a large and impressive collection of ukiyo prints.
Here is a partial list of some of the artists in basically chronological
order: Kiyonobu, Kiyomasu, Masanobu, Harunobu, Toyonobu, Koryūsai, Bunchō,
Shunman, Shunshō, Shigemasa, Toyoharu, Shun'ei, Shunchō, Kiyonaga, Utamaro,
Chōki, Eishi, Eishō, Eiri, Eisui, Sharaku, Toyokuni I, Toyohiro, Shuntei,
Eizan, Eisen, Kunisada (and as Toyokuni III), Toyokuni II, Kuniyoshi,
Hokusai, Hokkei, Hokui, Hiroshige, Hiroshige II, Sadahide, Kunisada II,
Hokushū, Ashiyuki, Yoshikuni, Sadanobu, Yoshitora, Yoshiiku, Yoshifusa,
Kunichika, Yoshitoshi, Kiyochika, Chikanobu, Goyo, Shinsui, Hasui, et al.
And that is only some of them. A who's who of Japanese prints artists.
Source for soba.
The dried seeds of the buckwheat plant or Fagopyrum esculentum are
the source of soba flour. Shirley Booth in her Food of Japan (pp.
106-107) notes that buckwheat is not a grain, but "...it is the seed of [an]
herbaceous plant... that is ground and used. Because buckwheat grows well in
cooler northern climes (buckwheat groats, called kasha, are a staple
in Russia), noodles made from buckwheat are a feature of the northern
prefectures of Japan such as Nagano and Niigata. They are also more popular
in the Tokyo area than wheat noodles (udon), which in turned are
favored by the people of the western Kansai region around Osaka. However,
when soba noodles are made with 100 percent buckwheat flour they tend
to break up easily, and, although extremely good for you due to the rutin in
buckwheat, they are somewhat heavy and dense. Pure buckwheat is also
expensive, so buckwheat flour is often mixed with a percentage of wheat
flour - usually in a ratio of 40-60 percent."
The images to the left
and below are shown courtesy of Shu Suehiro at
We would urge you to visit that valuable site.
Rick LaPointe wrote in
The Japan Times of December 30, 2001: "Soba (buckwheat) was cultivated
in Central Asia for as many as 4,000 years before the Christian era and made
its way from China by way of Korea to Japan, where the first references to
it date from the Nara Period (710-794). Buckwheat has been cultivated as a
secondary crop in Japan since its introduction, and for many years was
considered a peasant food, often eaten in times of famine."
There are many mythic
births. Literalists believe them to be true, but others see them as
metaphorical or fanciful.
Athena was born
fully grown and wearing a complete set of armor from the side of her father
who was suffering from a headache. Eve was created from one of Adam's ribs.
Whether this qualifies as a birth is not exactly clear, but that is
basically incidental. Jesus was the result of a virgin birth which medieval
Europeans believed to have been conceived aurally by the word of God
delivered by the Holy Ghost. The historical Buddha's birthday does not vary
greatly from these miracles. His mother stood and held the branch of a tree
with her right hand and the Buddha came out of her side while she was in a
state of bliss.
The date of the
Buddha's birth varies from nation to nation for reasons of which I am
ignorant. Generally it is linked to the 8th day of the 4th moon. In Japan it
is celebrated today on April 8th by the hanamatsuri (花祭 or はなまつり) or
flower festival. The commemoration is called hanakuyō (花供養 or はなくよう).
The practice of celebrating the
Buddha's birthday became more widespread and formalized during the Sung
dynasty (宋 or そう 960-1279). At this time the administrative-assistant leader
of a monastery would prepare "the 'flower pavilion' (花亭), in which he placed
the image of the new-born Buddha. Then he put two small ladles in a basin of
hot incense-water... and arranged several offerings before the Buddha.
Thereupon the abbot of the monastery (住持, jūji) entered the hall and
led the ceremony; incense and flowers, candles, tea, fruits and rare
delicacies were offered to the [Buddha]." Quoted from: Ancient Buddhism in Japan.
The ceremony changed
over the ages. The sweet-tea or amacha washing rite [see below] was
added during the Tokugawa era.
The image shown above is not a representation of the Buddha on his birthday, but it is fine
example all the same. It represents the "....Daibutsu at the Todaiji at
Nara, which comes from an ehon published in the 1690's entitled Todaiji
butsuden engi by an artist of the school of Hambei." This was sent to us
by our generous contributor E. Thanks E!
Kanbutsu-e is the Japanese name
for Buddha's birthday. The first kanji character 灌 'to pour' which is
interesting since there is a baptism ceremony involved.
In Japan from A to Z:
Mysteries of Everyday Life Explained by James and Michiko Vardaman it
states "...worshippers sprinkle a figure of the infant Buddha with sweet
tea, or ama-cha, as a rite of bathing the Buddha called kanbutsue.
The tea is symbolic of the scented water which nine dragons are said to have
poured over the infant when he was born."
The figure of the baby Buddha
is called the Tanjō Shaka (誕生釋迦 or たんじょう.しゃか) and the tea poured over
the statue is amacha (甘茶 or あまちゃ). [This 甘茶 is hydrangea tea.]
According to Basil Hall Chamberlain after the lustration ceremony the rest
of the tea is purchased "...and either partaken of at home in order to kill
the worms that cause various internal diseases, or placed near the pillars
of the house to prevent ants and other insect pests from entering." Several sources say that if the
amacha is mixed with ink and an incantation is written to ward off
insects this is much more efficacious. In 1915 W. L. Hildburgh wrote
"...when the new-born Buddha was receiving his first bath, the Tenjin...
caused a spring to well up in the... garden enclosure of the palace, and
that the water thereof contained a sweet-smelling incense having eight
virtues. This divinely beneficent act is called Zuiki. A small image
of the Infant Buddha is set up in a shrine in a temple's grounds (or,
sometimes, in the homes of believers), and ama-cha (an infusion
of hydrangea thunbergii) or kosui (water perfumed with
incense) is poured over it by means of a small ladle. The liquid which has
been used for the washing is sold at the temples, and is carried home in
small bamboo tubes..." The author speculated that the reason this liquid was
considered to work to deter insects might be because those same pests
were souls which had been reborn in a lower form. (Below is a picture of
Hydrangea serrata var. thunbergii posted by Shu Suehiro at
David Barnhill in his Basho's Haiku: Selected Poems of Matsuo Basho gives us an English
translation of a haiku composed in the Summer of 1688:
Buddha's-birthday:/ on this day is born/ a little fawn (kanbutsu
no/ hi ni umareau/ kanoko kana). Barnhill also gives us a
translation of one dealing with the death anniversary which is honored on
the 15th day of the second month: Buddha's Nirvana Day/ wrinkled hands
together/ the sound of the rosaries (nehane ya/ shiwade awasuru/ juzu
no ota). In The Narrow Road to the
Deep North and Other Travel Sketches Basho says "I was in Nara on
Buddha's birthday, and saw the birth of a fawn. I was so struck by the
Busshō-e (仏生会 or ぶっしょうえ)
is another term for Buddha's birthday celebration. "...the so-called Busshō-nichi
佛生日, or 'Day of Buddha's Birth', is based on ancient Indian texts." Quoted
from: Ancient Buddhism in
Japan by de Visser
Helen Baroni in her volume The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Zen Buddhism defines kanbutsu as
"Bathing the Buddha". "The rituals are also known as Yokubutsu." Later the
author says: "The practice of bathing images of the Buddha to celebrate his
birth originated in India. It became a popular custom in China by the
seventh and eighth centuries, when it was transmitted to Japan. Prince
Shōtoku Taishi (574-622) held the first kanbutsu ritual in Japan to
celebrate the Buddha's birthday in 606." In Ancient Buddhism in Japan
it says that the Bussho-e and its counterpart, the Urabon-e
(于蘭盆会 or うらぼんえ) honoring Buddha's death, were instituted by the Empress
Suiko in 606. The Urabon-e is known as the festival of lanterns. W.G.
Aston in his translation of the Nihongi also notes that the practice of
enshrinement of statues of the Buddha began in the same year.
De Visser notes that in one
of the sūtras that after his birth and washing and taking his first seven
steps that "All Buddhas of the ten quarters are born at midnight of the 8th
day of the 4th month, because at that time, between spring and summer, all
evil is ended, everything has fully matured, poisonous vapours are not yet
spreading, there is neither cold not [sic] heat, and the atmosphere is
harmonious and agreeable."
During the Tokugawa period
"In all sects, except the Jōdo Shinsū, on the Buddha's birthday a
temporary chapel (假堂, kari-dō) is prepared, and its roof is adorned
with flowers of the season.... In this chapel the image of the new-born
Buddha, standing upon the lotus flower which after his birth arose from the
earth, is placed in a copper basin with 'sweet tea' and the visitors of the
temple with small ladles pour the amacha over the Buddha's
head. Then they take the liquid home in small vessels, and after having
mixed it with their ink (i. e. having whetted their inkstone therewith) they
write the following verse (uta): 'On the lucky day, the mighty eighth of the
month of the hare (the 4th month), we are sure to execute the larvae of the
insects (kumisage-mushi)'. If one pastes this paper on the wall in
his house, he is believed to escape the evil of the centipedes and other
noxious insects." Quoted from: Ancient Buddhism in
Japan by de Visser, p. 56
Author of The Art
of Japanese Paper
The Hand of Buddha, a citron,
Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis - "Buddha's hand... an aromatic but
inedible ctiron that is said in its irregular shape to resemble the hand of
Buddha. Its Chinese name is a homophone for the words "happiness" and
"longevity" and the Chinese have designated it, the peach, and the
pomegranate the Three Abundances. Objects formed inthe shape of a Buddha's
hand were favored by Chinese literati of later dynasties, and in Japan the
citron is also regarded as an accoutrement of literati and tea-ceremony
masters." Quoted from: Symbols of Japan... by Merrily Baird, p. 57.
The curatorial files from the
museums of Aberdeen, Scotland state: "...a sacred fruit, which has been
important in both Chinese and Japanese culture for many centuries. The 'Hand
of Buddha' is a religiously significant mutation of the citrus plant, which
produces fruits resembling large rough lemons with squid like tentacles
rather like gnarled fingers. They are often brought into the home at New
Year as they are thought to bring good fortune. Buddha's hand fruit is very
fragrant and is used for perfuming rooms and personal items such as
The fruit may be given as a religious offering in Buddhist temples.
According to tradition, Buddha prefers the "fingers" of the fruit to be in a
position where they resemble a closed rather than open hand, as closed hands
symbolize to Buddha the act of prayer."
The photo of the jade citron to
the left was posted at commons.wikimedia. It is from the Asian Art Museum in
San Francisco and is of Chinese origin. The photo above was posted at the
same site by Fanghong.
A book of heraldry - "It also
mattered to the Edo townsmen and merchants who had access to the handbook of
heraldry, the daimyo bukan, which listed the feudal lords, their
principal vassals, their kokudaka, their heraldry and insignia, the
size of their entourage, their mansions, and the schedules of their rites of
homage to the shogun, for all this was highly relevant to the commercial
dealings with the daimyo's samurai and provided, so to speak, their credit
rating." Quoted from: The Making of Modern Japan by Marius Jansen, p.
Peter Korniki noted that: " 'it
remains remarkable' in the light on prohibition on foreigners purchasing
We found the image to the left
"The directories of the Bakufu
officialdom known as bukan 武鑑 were another form of serial
publication, for they were always available and constantly updated. Indeed,
most surviving examples show signs of alterations to the printing blocks as
publishers attempted to keep pace with personnel changes in the Bakufu, even
making changes on a monthly basis by the end of the Tokugawa period.
Directories of this sort were in existence in the early seventeenth century,
but it was in 1687 that a bookseller affiliated to the Bakufu as an official
publisher issued one with the word bukan in the title and from then
onwards it was the standard term. At the end of the seventeenth century
various publishers, all based in Edo, were producing bukan but by the early
eighteenth century the market had been cornered by cornered by Suwaraya
Mohee and Izumoji Izuminojō 出震寺和泉*"
Quoted from: The Book in Japan: A Cultural History from the Beginnings to
the Nineteenth Century by Peter Korniki, p. 69.
"...identifying banners had practical purposes. There were officials known
as gezami (下座見), stationed at border crossings and castle gates, who were
responsible for recognizing important individuals and commanding bystanders
to pay appropriate respect. Samurai lords also had retainers with similar
duties that accompanied them when travelling.[6, p.16] Given that such
officials needed to recognize mon, a compendium of heraldry such as this
would have been a useful reference." Quoted from: O-umajirushi: A
17th-Century Compendium of Samurai Heraldry, p. xi.
A family's Buddhist household
shrine or altar. The
ihai or memorial tablet of a deceased
relative is placed on a stand within, on - if it is a shelf, or before this
Below is a close up detail of a
butsudan - a very fancy butsudan - posted at commons.wikimedia by Corpse
How old is the concept of the
butsudan? According to Sampa Biswas in Indian Influence on the Art of Japan
(pp. 42-3) it started in the time of Emperor Temmu. "...in AD 685, orders
were sent to all the provinces to build in each house, a Buddhist shrine
where an image of the Buddha with Buddhist scriptures should be installed
and offerings of food be offered there.
In a book entitled The
Social Evil in Japan put out in 1908 by the Methodist Publishing House
says that "...nearly all brothel keepers are devout Buddhists... The inmates
of brothels are urged to perform their devotions before the Butsudan...
and endeavors are made by keepers and priests to give a religious halo to
the women's shame..."
A small portable shrine is
called zushi (厨子 or ずし).
"In 1690, Gizan (1648–1717), a
Jōdo-sect monk from Kyoto, well respected as a scholar of Buddhist history,
published the first edition of the authoritative guide to Buddhist deities
and implements, Illustrated Compendium of Buddhist Images (Butsuzō
zui). Ever since its publication, Butsuzō zui has served as
an authority for aspiring Buddhist painters, sculptors, craftsmakers, and
the lay public who needed to know the correct iconography and appearance of
the pantheon of Buddhist deities, sect patriarchs, and Buddhist
accoutrements." Quoted from: In Faith and Power in Japanese Buddhist Art,
1600-2005 by Patricia Graham, p. 110. Dr. Graham notes that earliest
edition differs considerably from one published in 1783.
Anyone who has visited
these pages knows that at times I am rather goofy. Camels don't count for a
lot in Japanese prints, although they do appear at times, but if you would
like to see a great print of one then click on the link to the right.
Keiko Suzuki gave a translation of
a poster for the arrival of the first camels in Edo in 1824. It says:
"...“camels’ urine heals poor circulation, scabies, and swellings, and their
hair works as a charm against smallpox and talismans. As both camels have a
gentle nature and make an affectionate couple, with one glance at them one
can catch the same affectionate nature. With their gentle nature, they are
not intimidated even by tens of thousands of people in front of them. They
are truly the rarest animals of all times”..."
The tea ceremony: "Chanoyu,
the ceremonial preparation and consumption of tea that was first formalized
by the Kyoto monk Murata Shukō (1422-1502) in the fifteenth century, became
a highly popular pastime with courtiers, daimyō feudal lords,
priests, and wealthy merchants alike." Quoted from: Master Potter of
Meiji Japan: Makuzu Kōzan (1842-1916) and His Workshop by Moyra Claire
Pollard, Oxford University Press, 2002, p. 9.
The image to the left was
posted originally at Flickr by Renfield Kuroda. We found it at
Soba made with green
tea - Often served cold on bamboo
slats with a dashi-soy based dipping sauce and some horseradish.
The image to the left was
posted at Flick by punzy.
For more on soba in general
click on the number
A dyed fabric
technique popular during the Edo period.
Staggered shelves: This element
became a standard feature during the Muromachi period (室町時代 or むろまちじだい:
1392-1568) of the residences of the military aristocracy and were placed
next to the tokonama (床の間 or とこのま), a recessed alcove reserved for
the display of a single hanging scroll along with several objets
d'art. The chigaidana were built into the room itself. William
Deal in his Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan said
that there were generally just two shelves and that they were often made
from special woods for a more decorative effect.
The photo shown above was taken
at Chishakuin Temple.
It was taken by Christian
Kaden and post at Flickr.
Michael Jeremy and Michael
Earnest Robinson in their Ceremony and Symbolism in the Japanese Home
state: "The chigaidana may appear on the surface to be nothing more
than a area of shelving and cupboard space. In fact, however, it is created
with great care and with great respect for the proportions which are
involved. There is invariably an upper and lower cabinet space and two
split-level shelves which suggest the recurring symbolism of anything that
is uneven, unequal, and therefore life-giving."
The sacred white robes
worn by Shinto shrine maidens or miko (御子 or みこ).
A bamboo thicket.
Often used as a decorative motif. It is also referred to as a takebayashi
(高林 or たけばやし).
In Buddhism this is the animal
realm that people are reborn into if they have led stupid or ignorant lives
- according some scholars.
Chi no ike jigoku
Blood Pool Hell - a place in
hell meant just for women. In The Tale of the Fuji Cave, as
translated by R. Keller Kimbrough, it say: "It’s true that both men and
women fall into hell, but many more women do than men. Women’s thoughts are
all evil. Still, women are forbidden to approach men on only eighty-four
days a year.39 Women don’t know their own transgressions, which is why they
fail to plant good karmic roots. It’s a shame, you know."
The image above was posted
at Flickr by Paul Allais. The one to the left
was also posted at the same
site by Katie.
Bernard Faure in The Red Thread: Buddhist Approaches to Sexuality (p.
119) he recounts the tale of a Wŏnhyo who encounters two women. One of them
is working in a field harvesting rice and refuses to share any of it with
Wŏnhyo. The other one is "...washing her menstrual band in a stream, the
ultimate act of defilement, for which women have been condemned to fall into
the Blood Pond Hell. When she offers some of that contaminated water to
Wŏnhyo, the latter, undaunted, gladly accepts. Later he finds out that these
two women were manifestations of Avalokiteśvara, who praises him through the
song of the bluebird."
For more information see our entry on
Tateyama on our Si thru Tengai page.
Born on Jan. 21, 1832 near
Genoa, Italy, and died of heart failure in Tokyo on Apr. 11, 1898. He
attended the Academy of Fine Arts in Genoa and trained mainly in engraving.
In 1862 he started working for the Italian National Bank. In 1867 he was
sent to Germany to hone his skills in creating banknotes. Because of the
political situation in Italy he stayed on in Germany. ¶ In the meantime, the
new Japanese government was trying to get control of that nation's finances.
Numerous provinces had printed their own currencies. The Meiji goverment was
determined to put a stop to that. So, they hired a number of skilled
European printers to help them get a handle on the situation. Chiossone was
one of them. He had been working for the firm that produced the new printing
plates for paper currency ordered by the Japanese government. ¶ Chiossone
arrived in Japan in 1875. He signed a contract to become the Chief Engraver
of the Paper Money Bereau. He produced numerous plates for stamps and
banknotes. ¶ He bequeathed a large collection of Asian art and artefacts to
his alma mater in Genoa. Eventually this was moved to the Museo d'Art
While this term can
mean crepe in general terms it is also the term used for silk crepe.
However, in this case it refers to a category of Japanese woodblock prints.
Detail from an early (1814) Kunisada chirimen print.
Literally it means "shrink (shrivel, shorten, condense, etc.) fine threads".
However, we can't avoid the general reference to chirimen as creped
silk. Helen Minnich in her Japanese Costume & Makers: And the Makers of
Its Elegant Tradition was talking about the use of blue dyed clothing
historically and noted that "From very early times very dark blue was never
a color for highranking personages but was worn mostly by coolies and
servants and considered wholly outside the pale of fashion. Just one
exception was the very long haori of dark-blue chirimen crepe which was worn
by all physicians as a mark of their profession."
A detail of a piece of silk
chirimen posted at
Wikimedia Commons by Soseki's
Butterfly: Dower did note in his
The Elements of Japanese Design (p.
88) "To a large extent [the butterfly] symbolized the other side of the
warrior's harsh life - his susceptibility to the effete graces of the
courtly society." Of course, that is Dower's opinion. For a different take
on this see our entry on
Ageha no chō on our first index/gloasary page. ¶ One more note
from this contributor: I make a ton of mistakes. Maybe you have noticed.
Nothing is gospel. If you disagree with me on anything posted in this site
please contact us. I don't mind being wrong, but one caveat, make sure you
back up your point with credible information.
In China, according
to C.A.S. Williams in his Chinese Symbolism and Art Motifs (pp. 51-2)
the butterfly "...is an emblem of joy. It is a symbol of summer..." and a
sign of conjugal felicity. "...in fact it might almost be called the Chinese
Cupid." This belief it would appear has its origins in Taoism.
However, in Japan
in the 7th century seems to have been a rather adverse reaction to Taoist
beliefs. "Although numerous plants and animals are mentioned in the
8th-century poetry anthology Man'yōshū there is not a single
reference to the butterfly. In an attempt to explain this some writers point
out that in 644, according to the chronicle Nihon shoki (720), the
government proscribed a popular variant of Taoism that venerated the larva
of the swallowtail butterfly as a god."
Later in the Tale of Genji the butterfly was thought of as something "loveable." By
the time of the Muromachi period (1333-1568) butterflies were appearing on
armor and furniture. (Source and quote
from: Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan, vol. 1, p. 226, entry by
Lea Baten in her
volume Japanese Animal Art: Antique and Contemporary (p. 97) adds a
little more information. "White butterflies are thought to be spirits of the
living as well as the dead, and may not be captured - the fragile insect is
a symbol of immortality, due to the successive stages of its metamorphose
from egg to caterpillar and from cocoon to adult insect. Its graceful
fluttering from flower to flower...is easily compared to the fickelness of
women who often change lovers (in search of money.)
to the left are details from a print by Chikanobu while the
ones above and below are by Kunisada.
Alfred Koehn in his article "Chinese Flower Symbolism" noted that "Many are
the pictures of Cats looking up at, or attempting to catch, Butterflies.
They express the hope for a happy Old Age because the Cat's name, mao
貓, suggests another mao 耄, a person well over seventy, and the
Butterfly's name, hu-tieh 蝴蝶, brings to mind the differently written
tieh 耋, eighty years of age."
In book publishing the chōai
is the worker who makes sure the pages align correctly.
"Eishi was of unusually high
rank for an Ukiyo-e artist, his grandfather and great-grandfather having
both served as Chief of Accounts (kantei bugyō) for the Bakufu, with
, with a stipend of 500 koku, court rank of Lower Fifth Grade and the
title of Governor of Tamba Province. This permitted Eishi to study painting
under Kanō Eisen'in Michinobu (1730-90), head of the Kanō school and Chief
Painter in Attendance (oku-eshi) to the Shōgun Ieharu after 1781. The
nineteenth-century compilation of painters' biographies, Koga bikō,
even records that Eishi was appointed as Ieharu's 'painting companion' (om-ga
no tomo), though he was forced to retire after only three years of
service because of ill health, presumably before Ieharu's death in 1786. ¶
It was at about this time that Eishi must have taken the decision to 'drop
out' of the Bakufu bureaucracy and painting academy and become an artist of
the popular Ukiyo-e school. Such a transformation was not entirely
unprecedented: it was at this time that Sakai Hoitsu, second son of the Lord
of Himeji, was studying Ukiyo-e painting with Utagawa Toyoharu. Eishi never
relinquished his high status, however, and some of his best later Ukiyo-e
paintings are signed with titles such as 'Painted by Eishi, High Official of
the Ministry of Ceremonial, Tokitomi of the Fujiwara Clan' (Jibukyō Eishi
Fujiwara Tokitomi hitsu'). ¶ His earliest works in Ukiyo-e style were
illustrations for a kibyōshi novel published in 1785, and in general
his colour prints of the later 1780s follow the prevailing style of
Kiyonaga, with a particular penchant for courtly themes, as in his series of
triptychs reworking chapters from Tale of Genji in modern settings,
printed entirely in muted colours. In the 1790s he produced a steady stream
of prints of standing or seated beauties against simple backgrounds that
show the influence of Utamaro, but have a particularly refined tone (often
likening the courtesans to female poets from the Heian period) and a style
that favoured broad sweeping curves in the drapery. ¶ Eishi was one of the
most prolific of Ukiyo-e painters, and although his corpus of several
hundred paintings has yet to be studied systematically and in detail, there
are a handful of dated works that fall between 1795 and 1826. The figures
show the same elegant line and refined poses as in the woodblock prints and
are often set in ink-wash landscapes deftly painted in the Edo-Kanō
technique learned in his youth. Eishi was often prone to repeating
successful compositions, and, for example, more than a dozen versions
survive in various formal and informal painting styles of a handscroll,
The Gods of Good Fortune Visit Yoshiwara, based on a comic essay of
1781, Kakure-zato no ki ('Record of the Hidden Village'), by Ōta
Nampo. Nampo was a leading figure in popular literature from the 1780s to
his death in 1823, and his kyōka (crazy verse) or kanshi
(Chinese-style poem) inscriptions are often to be found on Eishi's
paintings: Eishi did several versions of a portrait of the famous writer. ¶
In addition to paintings on Ukiyo-e themes Eishi did several versions of a
handscroll, The Battle of Sekigahara (fought in 1600), presumably for
military patrons. It is with precisely the same touch Eishi used to paint
the crests of Yoshiwara courtesans on their lanterns that he now painted the
emblems of military families on their battle standards: nothing could
illustrate more neatly the duality of the world he inhabited. It is further
recorded that on one occasion the retired Emperor Gosakuramachi saw a
painting by Eishi, Sumida River, and was sufficiently taken with it
for the work to enter the Imperial collections. After this Eishi
occasionally impressed a large seal on his paintings reading 'Viewed by the
Emperor' (tenkan). ¶ Almost thirty pupils of Eishi are recorded, the
most prominent being Eishō, Eiri and Eisui, who are known for thier colour
prints of the 1790s showing bust portraits of famous courtesans. Most other
pupils are known only by a few paintings in Eishi style, and it seems that
after c. 1800 the new, brash tenor of commercial printing -
epitomised by the Utagawa school - was no longer in tune with Eishi's fine
sensibilities. After this time he produced only paintings.
Quoted from: Ukiyo-e
Paintings in the British Museum by Timothy Clark, p. 122.
The image to the left is from
the collection of the Brooklyn Museum. We found it at commons.wikimedia.
提燈 / 提灯
A lantern made of
bamboo covered with paper or silk with a candle placed inside. It can be
folded flat when not being used. Formerly they could be used like
flashlights at night.
Two of three examples
shown here represent various interpretations of the chōchin in print form
from three different periods. The one at the top left is from a Kunisada
print with a bijin balanced precariously on a railing while trying to hang a lantern (ca.
1840). The image in below that is by Hiroshi Yoshida showing the interior of
a lantern maker's shop with several of these shown collapsed on the ground
(1926). Hanging them stretches them out to the full form. The third example
is by Kiyochika and shows a cat which has caught a mouse by its tail as it
is trying to escape through a lantern lying in its side. Notice the mouse's
snout sticking out of the left side of the lantern (ca. 1880). My money is
on the mouse.
The protuberance found
at the top of the head of a Buddha. There are 32 different physical aspects
of the Buddha of which the chōkei-sō is simply one.
To the untrained
and especially typical Western eye the area at the top of the Buddha's head
appears to be a simple hairstyle. However, it is anything but that. Years
ago I was told by an expert in the field that when the Buddha attained
enlightenment while meditating under the bodhi tree his brain expanded
enormously and his skull had to expand to accommodate it. In Sanskrit it is
referred to as the usnisa - pronounced usnisha.
The chōkei-sō is also known as the nikkei (肉髻 or にっけい).
For several days I
was struggling to find the Japanese term for the usnisa. Then I heard
from an old friend who is a scholar and Japanophile - Karen Mack. A few
minutes late I had my answer.
Karen has lived in
Japan for years and for some time has been offering a fascinating blog
devoted to most things Japanese. I would urge you to take a look and
bookmark it for future reference.
we corrected the 'o' to a long 'o'
A 'boar's tusk boat'.
So named because of its shape. It was used to ferry passengers and goods.
The detail to the
left is from a print by Hokusai.
In Women of the Pleasure Quarters: The Secret History of the Geisha
by Lesley Downer, in her glossary section it defines 'chokibune'
as a "light, swift, single-oared boats, used to take customers along the
River Sumida to the Yoshiwara pleasure quatrer."
"Ferries were but one of a number of different types of vessel on the rivers
of east Japan, each type a slightly different size and bearing a different
name. The boats of the Sumida were described by the politician and patron of
horse-racing Arima Yoriyasu (1884-1957) in an essay entitled 'Sumidagaiva
no fune' (The boats of the Sumida river) written in 1916 and first
published in Kyōdo kenkyū (Local research). Arima had a villa along
the river in Hashiba, and no doubt it was from there that he observed the
variety of boats. The little water-borne taxi boats known as chokibune
('boar's tooth boat,' named, according to one theory, for its resemblance to
the tusk of a wild boar) had, Arima wrote, all but disappeared. Equally, the
yakatabune were hardly to be seen any
longer. These were the pavilioned pleasure boats under whose elegant eaves
geisha entertained summertime party-goers. Arima described the
various types of fishing boat still in use and the boats for the transport
of goods including the takasebune, only recently introduced to the
Sumida, with their large high bow making them look from the front like a
toad, whence their alternative name of gamabune, or toad boat. These
were used for the transport of potatoes, grains, beans, and firewood from
Kawagoe. The most common form of vessel was the denmasen, conveying
goods between markets and wholesalers. The chabune, 'tea boat,' was a
smaller equivalent used mainly as a lighter to carry goods from larger boats
down the waterways to the quays in town." Quoted from: Japanese Capitals
in Historical Perspective: Place, Power and Memory in Kyoto, Edo and Tokyo,
Metal kettle used for
warming and serving sake.
According to the Kenkyusha's New Japanese English Dictionary chōshi
means "a sake-holder" or "a sake-bottle".
In Saké: A Drinker's Guide by Hiroshi Kondō it says on page 90, in
the section on 'Warming Saké': "Almost everyone knows that saké is served
warm in small pitchers (called tokkuri or o-chōshi), and that
it is drunk from tiny cups (sakazuki or o-choko)." Kondō later
adds: "Many connoisseurs insist that warming saké distorts its true taste,
and few people would warm a truly outstanding saké. Heating a mediocre saké
will only emphasize its defects. But there are some occasions when saké is
best warm. A dry saké warm, for example, will reveal its distinctive nose
and flavor. And in the Edo period, the favorite dictum of connoisseurs was:
'The saké should be warm, the cuisine sashimi, and the pourer a
beautiful woman.' "
One of the "Four
Gentlemen" or Shikunshi which are flowers which mirror positive human
traits. The other three are plum, orchid and bamboo. Borrowed from the
Chinese and linked to confucian concepts.
approximately 10 1/4" x 7 1/2"
Riding in air: A stage trick or keren of an actor flying, via ropes (or wires) and pulleys, over the
stage or audience.
Definition from: Kabuki
Plays on Stage: Darkness and Desire, 1804-1864, edited by James R.
Brandon and Samuel L. Leiter, University of Hawai'i Press, 2002, p. 358.
Leiter also gives chūnori as 中乗り or middle-riding.
The chu (宙) we have chosen to use can mean
space, mid-air or sky, but in combination with other kanji can mean
everything from cosmology to somersault to space station and that is only
three examples of many.
"Flying is known as chunori
and has become the specialty of Ichikawa Ennosuke III [born 1939], who has
applied the device to great effect, particularly in his performance as Nikki
Danjo in the play Date no Ju Yaku and as the fox Tadanobu in
Yoshitsune Senbai Zakura. The character may either fly across the
stage or out into the audience. The latter is achieved by a winch set up
over the hanamichi, running from the main stage to the top of the third
floor of the theater. Using a special costume under which a harnass is
concealed, the actor takes off near the main stage and rises up to the top
floor, where he disappears into a specially constructed room in the seating
Quoted from: Kabuki: A
Pocket Guide, by Ronald Cavaye, Charles E. Tuttle Company, 1993, p. 92.
The image to the left is a
doctored image from a vertical diptych which shows the Princess Sakura
leaping from a balcony. The wire does not appear in the print. However, this
leap could only have occurred safely with the use of a chūnori. Below
is the undoctored image. Click on it to see the full diptych.
"One of the chief types of
trick-effect acting (keren), flying is a technique by which a magical
creature or ghost is made to soar through the air. A metal fitting on the
costume is fastened to a wire that lifts the actor into the air. He may fly
out over the auditorium, following the path of the hamamichi below, to the
balcony. He wears a parachute-like harnass (renjaku), and a man in
the balcony runs the main pulley, while another controls the waist wire, and
another the crotch wire." ¶ "Chūnori itself seems to have vanished in
the prewar years. The negative reaction to it began in the late nineteenth
century when it was objected to by Ichikawa Danjūrō IX (although he had
flown as Jiraiya... in his youth). Chūnori was reintroduced only in
Quote from: New Kabuki
Encyclopedia: A Revised Adaptation of kabuki jiten, compiled by Samuel
L. Leiter, 1997, p. 63.
Karen Brazell and James
Araki in their Traditional Japanese Theater: An Anthology of Plays
(Columbia University Press, 1998, p. 527) note that this technique was also
used in puppet theater where the person holding the puppet flew through the
"The Fox-Tadanobu in Yoshitsune
Senbon Zakura performs the best-known chūnori. The actor flies in a
horizontal position in this role." [Note: While the image above from a print
by Kuniyoshi does not show the figure in a horizontal position that is the
way it is most frequently performed.]
Quote from: Quote from: New Kabuki
Encyclopedia: A Revised Adaptation of kabuki jiten, compiled by Samuel
L. Leiter, 1997, p. 64.
"The Treasury of the
47 Loyal Retainers" - probably the most popular tale adapted for both kabuki
and bunraku. Often the subject of ukiyo artists.
Author and scholar -
curator in the Department of Japanese Antiquities at the British Museum
Ostrich - normally we wouldn't add something like this entry, but we felt it
was too good not to. Why? Because so far we can find out nothing about
ostriches in Japanese culture or history. We will add it if it ever shows
A large, elaborately
decorated drum often with a surrounding flame-like frame. The ones with the
火焔) motif are referred to as kaen dadaiko (火焔大鼓 or かえんおおだいこ).
The oldest officially administered temple in Japan is the Shitennō-ji (四天王寺)
in Osaka. It was built by Prince Shōtoku (聖徳太子: 574-622 A.D.) who played the
'flame drum' at its opening.
"The wig consists of a copper
base (daigane) that is moulded to the exact shape of the individual
actor's skull and onto which the hair is attached." Quoted from: A Guide to the Japanese Stage: From Traditional to Cutting Edge by Cavaye, Griffith and Senda, p. 75.
The Japanese radish or Raphanus sativus: According to Shu Suehiro at
this plant was native to Central Asia and coastal areas of the
Mediterranean. It was cultivated in ancient Egypt and first appeared in
Japan some time during the Jomon Era to Yayoi Era, i.e., from 10,000 to
2,500 years ago. The white to pale purple, 4 petaled flowers bloom in March
and April. It is a member of the Brassiaceae or mustard family. in
ancient times it was referred to as the suzushiro (すずしろ). (The photos
of the plant itself are shown courtesy of Shu and we would encourage you to
visit his wonderful site.)
Merrily Baird in her Symbols of Japan: Thematic Motifs in Art and Design
(pp. 95-6) notes that the daikon "...is a dietary mainstay that
enjoys a reputation for ensuring good health." In ca. 815 "...Heian court
officials began to observe a pair of Chinese-inspired festivals known as the
Medicinal Offerings and the Tooth Hardening (okusuri and hagatame)."
Wine and special foods including radishes were offered to the Emperor at New
Year's. The daikon was thought to harden the teeth and hence ensure
good health. "A century later, the court began observing on the seventh day
of the New Year Festival of Young Herbs. This involved the preparation of a
gruel of seven auspicious plants, including the radish..."
During the Muromachi
the daikon took on new significance: "...it symbolized beliefs, originally
introduced by Tendai Buddhism in the ninth century, that even lowly forms of
life such as vegetables could attain a state of Buddhahood" To the Zen sect
it was linked to the simple, monastic life and was popularized through
In the Edo period the daikon came to be linked with Daikokuten, one of the Seven Propitious
Gods. "Forked radishes in particular can also symbolize a female's wish for
a child, and, in this context, they sometimes are donated to shrines."
[Note the dancing
radish to the below. It is a detail from an early print by Kunisada where a
seated male figure is sternly considering this life sized taproot. Is the
radish dancing gleefully because it has attained enlightenment a la the Tendai sect? Is is meant to represent a woman's desire for child? Or, could
it be something else? Personally, I haven't the slightest.]
crests: According to John W. Dower in his The Elements of Japanese Design
(pp. 76-77) the radish is "One of the seven plants of spring,"...[and it
has] numerous superstitious and religious connotations."
He continues: "In
ancient religious ceremonies it was associated with parsley and shepherd's
purse as a particularly auspicious food for certain occasions. In esoteric
Buddhism, a forked radish was the symbol of Shoten (Vinayaksha), the
elephant-headed god, and this obvious fertility symbolism came to bode
prosperity and success."
One of the Seven
Propitious Gods. He is the god of wealth and harvest and can often be
identified by his large sack of treasures and his wooden mallet.
The image above was taken by Fg2 and can be found along with many others at http://commons.wikimedia.org/.
"The name Daikoku, the Great Black Deity, is a direct translation of
Mahākalā, the name of the Hindu deity already adopted by Buddhists in India.
...he is described as a manifestation of Mahāvairocana who can subdue
demons. The Sutra of the Wisdom of the Benevolent Kings speaks of
Daikoku as a god of war, and in Buddhist iconography he is often portrayed
with a fierce and angry countenance. He is also, however, described as a
great bodhisattva of good fortune who shares his wealth with the poor, and
it is for this characteristic that he is known as one of the Seven Gods.
Well fed and smiling, Daikoku carries a sack of good fortune over one
shoulder; in his other hand he holds a small mallet for hammering out wealth
no kozuchi). He wears a loose cap or headcloth and typically
stands on two straw bales of rice. Here, too, a lesson in moderation is to
be found in his appearance: the loose headcloth prevents him from looking up
and getting too ambitious; the two bales represent an essential sufficiency
that should keep him content." (Quoted from: Practically
Religious: Worldly Benefits and the Common Religion of Japan, by Ian
Reader and George Joji Tanabe, University of Hawaii Press, 1998, p. 158)
"There is another agrarian moral about the virtue of labor to be learned
from the homonyms for the mallet (tsuchi) that hammers out wealth (takara).
"Tsuchi" also means dirt or earth, and "takara" can also be read as
two words: "ta kara," (from the rice field). The straw bales of rice,
therefore, do not fall freely from heaven but are produced by 'hammering the
earth' and working the fields." (Ibid.)
"Because wealth was traditionally measured in terms of good harvest, Daikoku
has usually been pictured standing on two or three bales of rice while a
mouse, his messenger, scampers about in search of fallen grains. In rural
Japan, Daikoku became a deity of the rice paddies. Because of his connection
with food, he was often enshrined in kitchens or dining rooms. In the Kyoto
area, belief in Daikoku goes back at least to the Muromachi period
(1336-1573)." (Quoted from: Dojo Magic and
Exorcism Modern J: Magic and Exorcism in Modern Japan, by Winston Davis,
Stanford University Press, 1982, p. 24.)
A feudal lord
After certain daimyō were
deified as incarnations of kami or gods they were also considered to be
manifestations of buddhas. Unlike goryō who were
malevolent spirits which had to be appeased and mollified daimyos were
benevolent and were worshipped for that power despite their histories of
military prowess. (See our entry on
on our Ges thru Haimyō page.) Tokugawa Ieyasu was deified as Tōshō Daigongen
and Toyotomi Hideyoshi as Hōkoku Daimyōjin.
Daimyō's procession - In
an effort to maintain control over all of the various lords of Japanese
fiefdoms the Tokugawa shogunate required that each daimyō maintain a
residence in Edo, the shogun's capital, and that each daimyō leave important
family members, wives and sons, there and visit them every other year for an
extended length of time. This required great effort and expense on the part
of these local rulers and each tried to outdo their peers in pomp and
regalia. While these processions may have impressed other daimyōs and the
people along the route they effectively disrupted these lords abilities to
rule their own properties firmly and consistently and it upset their own
financial stability to such an extent that it strengthened the central
controls instituted by the Tokugawa regime.
Above is an Eisen triptych from
the Lyon Collection. It is a mitate of a damiyo's procession. For
more information click on it.
Rokujuyo-shu no Uchi
A series of prints by
Kuniyoshi: "Sixty Odd Provinces of Japan - Dramatic Chapters"
Buddhist temple of the
Rinzai (臨済宗 or りんざいしゅう) Zen sect in Kyōto
The image shown above was
posted at commons. wikimedia by 663highland.
The image to the left of the
stone garden, the Daisen-in, is only one found at the Daitoku-ji. This photo
posted by Ivanoff can also be found at commons.wikimedia.
One story says that a statue of
Sen no Rikyū (千利休 or せんのりきゅう: 1522-91), the great tea master, was erected
near a gate of Daitoku-ji. This so infuriated Hideyoshi because he had
funded that gate that he ordered Rikyū to commit suicide.
Ikkyū (一休 or いっきゅう: 1394-1481)
served as an abbot here.
In a 1903 guide to Kyōto it
states that the Daitoku-ji "...occupies a site of 57 acres in Ōmiya village,
northwest of the city. It was established in A. D. 1323 by Myōchō
[妙超 or みょうちょう: 1282-1337], also
known as Daitō-kokushi, with the support of the Emperor Godaigo, who
ordained it 'The Unrivalled School of the Zen Sect,' and made it an
Imperial temple of worship. The success of this temple in later years was
largely due to the abbots in charge; the witty and clever Ikkyū in the
15th century and the learned Takuan in the 17th century being widely known."
The Daitoku-ji is a complex
of 24 temples, monasteries and offices.
Dumpling motif: At
first glance the use of the sweet dumpling would seem to be a rather odd
choice for a family crest or mon - especially for a warrior clan. However,
John W. Dower notes that its origin has a rather gruesome source. Supposedly
"...Oda Nobunaga [織田信長 or おだのぶなが - 1534-82], Japan's great sixteenth-century
unifier...wished to see the severed heads of his enemies skewered like
dumplings on a spit." (Quote
Elements of Japanese Design, by John W. Dower, p. 110)
Dumplings made of steamed or
boiled rice. When served three to a skewer they are called kushi-dango (串団子 or
くしだんご). The kushi element, 串,
Dango are served along with tea
for moon viewing, tsukimi (月見 or つきみ). These are never skewered. This is
according to Chado The Way of Tea: A Japanese Tea Master's Almanac.
(p. 461) "It is said that dango (dumpling) has its origin in Chinese cake, danki. Sugar is added to rice flour, kneaded, rounded into an
appropriate size and steamed." This volume also quotes a poem by Beitoku:
"Come on moon, dango is served at all 53 stages of the Tōkaidō.
Yoel Hoffmann in his Japanese Death Poems (published by Tuttle, 1996, p. 277) notes that "One
occasion for eating dango is during the cherry-blossom [sic] season
in the spring."
In Shunju New Japanese Cuisine: New Japanese Cuisine by Takashi
Sugimoto, et al., (published by Tuttle, 2002, p. 88) dango are mixed
with salt-preserved cherry blossoms and ground chrysanthemum leaves. They
can be served hot or at room temperature.
There is a major Japanese born
American ceramicist, Jun Kaneko, who has created enormous pieces he calls
Dango because they are reminiscent of dumplings. Their size alone is
remarkable. Some of these are more than 13 feet tall, weigh thousands
of pounds and take over a year to dry before they are bisque-fired. I have
watched this man's career for years, long before I had this web site, and
have to tell you - I am truly impressed.
The photograph of Mitarashi
dango was posted at Flikr by Isaac'licious.
Dannoura no Tatakai
(The Battle of
This is the battle
on April 25, 1185 which put the final nail in the coffin of Taira hegemony.
Kabuki role of a man
who slays his obnoxious father-in-law.
Daruma is the
Japanese name for Bodhidharma who was the founder of what became known
as Zen in Japan.
James T. Ulak in "Japanese
Works in The Art Institute of Chicago: Five Recent Acquisitions" from 1993
noted that the Sanskrit Bodhidarma lived from c. 470 to c. 543 and was the
28th patriarch in a lineage from 'Sakyamini Buddha'. "Daruma was an Indian
aristocrat who relinquished power and wealth in search of enlightenment."
Ulak added that the Zen movement may owe some of its concepts to the yogic
practices of India melded with certain Taoist practices from China. Daruma
is often represented with long ear lobes stretch by the weight of heavy gold
earrings and "...a long fingernail, on the thumb, which was the sign of an
ascetic." Ulak added that the earliest known image of Daruma was from a
Chinese book from the mid-11th c.
I can't tell you exactly what the image above stands for because I don't
know. Is is some kind of a faux-Daruma? Perhaps. Is it an actor playing the
role of Daruma? Maybe. Someone out there knows and hopefully will set me
straight. What I do know is that the image is by Kuniyoshi and the Daruma
figure is wearing a catfish for a robe. Notice the two eyes on the hood and
the hint of catfish feelers or whatever those things are called. There is
another level of signification which wouldn't be obvious to the unlettered
viewer: The catfish is a symbol of the destructive nature of earthquakes - a
giant catfish living under the earth is believed to be the cause of such
calamities - and faith in the Daruma would be something needed to tame its
violent ways. For more about the catfish see our
The word 'Daruma', for
whatever reason, became a slang term for prostitute. According to one source
there was a famous, beautiful courtesan in the late 1600s who laughed when
she heard the story of Daruma sitting staring at a wall for nine years. She
said basically "That's not such a big deal. Prostitutes have to spend every
day and every night sitting and looking for customers - not facing a wall
but facing the street through the windows. After ten years in this world of
misery, I have already exceeded Daruma by one year."
Supposedly when the
artist Hanabusa Itchō (英一蝶 or はなぶさいちょう: 1652-1724) heard this anecdote he
painted the first onna Daruma as a prostitute.
Sometimes Daruma is
joined by one or more beautiful women. The conclusion: Even the most stolid,
i.e., transcendental, male cannot avoid the lure of feminine wiles.
There are even
cases where Daruma is shown dressed in drag. The reason? Got me. It must
have amused someone. (See our entry for
This might clear things up a bit - but don't count on it.)
Source and quotes: Daruma: The Founder of Zen in Japanese Art and Popular Culture, by H.
Neill McFarland, Kodansha International, 1987, pp. 82-86.
F. Hadland Davis in his Myths and Legends of Japan (Kessinger
Publishing, 2003, p. 298 - originally printed in 1912 or 1913) relates how
Daruma fell asleep meditating before the wall. While sleeping he had a
mildly erotic dream and when he woke "...he was truly penitent for the
neglect of his devotions, and, taking a knife from his girdle, he cut off
his eyelids and cast them upon the ground, saying: 'O Thou Perfectly
Awakened!' The eye-lids were transformed into the tea-plant, from which was
made a beverage which would repel slumber and allow good Buddhist priests to
keep their vigils." It is also believed that his 9 years of meditation
caused his legs to rot off leaving only a sort-of roly-poly figure. ¶ Davis
adds: "He is sometimes presented in Japanese art as surrounded by cobwebs,
and there is a very subtle variation of the saint portrayed as a female
Daruma, which is nothing less than a playful jest against Japanese women,
who could not be expected to remain silent for nine years!" (Ibid., p. 299)
Daruma dolls like those shown above populate Japan in the millions. In this
case, a photograph generously placed in the public domain by Chris Gladis
originally at Flick but now found at
shows dolls which were purchased by visitors to Katsuo-ji (勝尾寺 or かつおじ) in
Miho (美穂 or みほ), near Osaka. He tells us that "Each of these is a wish come
true. You buy the Daruma from the temple, write your dream on it and fill in
one eye. If you get what you wished for, you fill in the other eye and bring
it back to the temple. They range in price from 2000 yen to upwards of
Above is an illustration by Toyokuni I
of Daruma riding a reed or blade
of grass across the waters.
We added the colors. Compare
this to our entry on
in his Dōgen and the Kōan Tradition: A Tale of Two Shōbōgenzō
Texts (SUNY Press, 1994, p. 197) realtes one of the versions of history of
Daruma: "...referred to in the Hōrinden and later chronicles as the
twenty-eighth Zen patriarch and the first on Chinese soil. Bodhidharma is
depicted in the chronicles as the third son of a king who crossed the Yangtze on
a single reed, meditated for nine years facing the wall of a cave till his legs
withered away before gaining enlightenment, and commanded his foremost disciple
to cut off his arm during a snowstorm as proof of his dedication. In some
versions of the legend Bodhidharma is deified in that he performs supernatural
feats, including conquering illness, poison and death. Tea is said to grow from
the eyebrows he ripped off his face [see the variant version above] and
discarded in disgust of himself for having dozed off during meditation."
In a follow up to the above entry we have The Complete Idiot's Guide to
Understanding Buddhism by Gary Gach (published by Alpha Books, 2001, p.
203): "The legend was the Bodhidharma would only accept a student when the snows
ran red. No takers, until one winter this guy named Hui K'o (Hwee Koh) cuts off
his own arm and brings it to Bodhidharma as a token of his sincerity."
In A Buddhist Spectrum: Contributions to Buddhist-Christian Dialogue by
Marco Pallis (published by World Wisdom, Inc, 2003, p. 85) the author recounts
the tale of Bodhidharma who "on one occasion... came to the sea-shore wishing to
cross to the other side. Finding no boat, he suddenly espied a piece of reed and
promptly seized and launched it on the water; then, stepping boldly on its
fragile stalk, he let himself be carried to the farther shore."
¶ Pallis in an esay in
another book spoke about the trust it took to step on a reed with a sin-weighted
body. (Pray Without Ceasing: The Way of the Invocation in World Religions,
published by World Wisdom,
Inc, 2006, p. 103).
A clan of the Sendai
A hairstyle popular in the
1790s. Worn only by the highest ranking courtesans. This style was
represented in prints by Utamaro, Chōki and others.
Hairstyles were known by
particular or specialized names just as a young American might go into a
barbershop and ask for a flat-top or a crew cut.
The term 'date' (伊達)
can mean elegance or sophistication, while 'hyōgo' (兵庫) may be eponymous for
one of Japan's prefectures.
The image to the left is a
detail taken from an unattributed print in the Lyon Collection. Click on it
to see the whole image.
Date kurabe okuni
"Fashionable apron" - "......a
kabuki costume element worn by footmen (yakko) in jidai
mono and shosagoto. The actor ties it around the waist, where it
hangs down in front like an apron. It has a gold and silver design with
baren hanging from its bottom." Quoted from: Historical Dictionary of
Japanese Traditional Theatre, p. 81.
The image to the left is from a
Kunisada print from ca. 1818. Above is a date-sagari exhibited by
The Old Hag of Hell
who gathers the clothing or
skins of the damned before they cross over the
Three-Ford River (Sanzu no kawa - 三途の川 or さんずのかわ) to Hell.
Above is an altered detail of a print by Kuniyoshi of Datsueba
neck-wrestling [see our entry on
kubihiki] with Kenne-ō (懸衣翁 or けんねおう), 'the Old Man Who Hangs
Clothes.' Her team is made up of horses while his is foxes. Something which
had seemed obvious to me was her haggard face and pendulous breasts, but
what I hadn't noticed was that often she is posed with one knee up. I had
seen this, but had never made the connection between that position and an
iconographic reading. Now I get it.
Datsueba is also referred to
as Sōzu no baba. Another alternative is Shozuka no baba (脱衣婆 or しょうづかのばば) or
the Old Woman Who Takes Off the Clothes.
According to The Tale of the Fuji Cave Datsueba is a manifestation of
the Dainichi Buddha. Of those wearing clothes she strip the dead of 25 robes
"...in accord with their twenty-five types of sin." If they arrive naked she
strips them of their skins and hangs them "...on the limbs of a biranju
[毘蘭樹 or びらんじゆ] tree" and later makes these into celestial feather gowns. The
robes in question were generally the burial robes. The worse the sin the
heavier the robe causing the branches to droop.
"Datsueba is a deity worshipped
by women at the uba-dō [うばど], a building reserved for women, and
traditionally marking the limits of the nyonin kekkai [prohibition
against women entering a sacred area: 女人結界 or にょにんけっかい]. Thus, during the
autumn equinox (higan [彼岸 or ひがん]), a rite of passage for women known
as the 'great unction... of the bridge covered with pieces of cloth' (nunobashi
[布橋 or ぬのばし] daikanjō-e) was performed at the Uba-dō at Tateyama [立山 or たてやま].
Three bands of white cloth were spread on the path leading to the Yama Hall
(Enma-dō) to the Uba-dō, crossing a stream on a bridge. This cloth, offered
by the believers, was later used to fabricate clothes for the dead, so that
they could appear in front of Datsueba wearing consecrated clothes, thus
avoiding having their skin taken off by the terrible old hag. The stream is
symbolically associated with the Sanzu no kawa, while entering the Uba-dō is
interpreted as 'entering the Pure Land' (jōdo-iri [浄土 入り or じょうどいり])." After
three days of chanting for salvation the officials would throw open the
gates and the women would sense a vision of the Pure Land Paradise. Quoted from:
The Power of
Denial: Buddhism, Purity, and Gender, by Bernard Faure, published by
Princeton University Press, 2003, p. 315.
Uba-dō and Tateyama explained: "...at the foot of Tateyama, there is a small
building called Uba-dō, dedicated to the mother of Jikō Shōnin [時光上人 or
じこうしょうにん]. Interestingly, she has become identified with a rather frightful
female deity - although she is represented here with a smiling face - the
old infernal hag known as Datsueba..." (Ibid., p. 232) In 1869, they year
after the Meiji Restoration, the prohibition against allowing women to climb
Mt. Tate was lifted, but "...it was a pyrrhic victory for women: the Uba-dō
was destroyed in the process, the cult of Datsueba forbidden, and the place
turned into a cultic center of 'pure' Shintō. Yet the old associations were
resilient, and the place has recently experienced a revival of sorts."
(Ibid., pp. 232-3)
By the time of the Edo period Datsueba had been syncretized fully with the
Japanese concepts surrounding the uba. She was often shown in the
company of Emma-O the King of Hell. At Asakusa-dera is a statue of an uba
that people prayed to is they are suffering from a toothache. In another
location people with severe coughs pray to a statue of Datsueba. "In other
cases, Datsueba has become a protector of children, and women prayer for her
boons such as abundant lactation and children's health. In this function,
she appears to be an avatar of the uba-gami. In some variants of the
legend, the clothes (or the skin) that she tears off from the dead as they
are about to enter hell are metaphorically assimilated to the placenta that
she gave them at birth." (Ibid., pp. 315-316)
Stephen F. Teiser in his The Scripture on the Ten Kings and the Making of
Purgatory in Medieval Chinese Buddhism (University of Hawaii Press, 2003, p.
31) "The producers of books and the preachers responsible for educating lay
people about the fate of the dead understood well that the displaying of
pictures of bodies in pain tends to have a more significant impact than simply
writing or talking about them." In other words, a picture is worth... ¶ A
British Museum web page notes that the Ten Kings of Hell are based on an
apocryphal sutra dated 903 A.D. They rule over the successive spheres through
which the soul must go to attain rebirth. The soul first appears before the
first seven kings at seven day intervals, the 8th king after 100 days, the 9th
after a year and the 10th on the 3rd anniversary of their death. Teiser
continues (p. 33): "Movement toward a fate measured by gradations of karma is
shown especially clearly in some of the illustrations of the second court,
administered by the King of the First River. In the second week after death, the
spirit must cross the River Nai." Some will nearly drown, others will cross at
the shallows, while those least cursed by the weight of negative karma may cross
over a bridge. "The Japanese text refines the spiritual ranking by specifying
that people can cross the river at three fords: at the shallows of a mountain
stream, at a deep river, or by a bridge. The Japanese text also makes sense of
the imagery in other versions of this scene... in which sinner's clothes hang
from a tree on the banks of the river. The tree is actually a scale, says the
Japanese text, that measures the worth of people's past actions. The text also
names two figures missing from the Chinese illustrations, Datsueba (Old Woman
Who Pulls Off Clothing) and Den'eo (Old Man Who Hangs Up Clothing), whose jobs
explain how the tree-scale comes to function." This obviously is the source of
the Japanese concept of the Three-Ford River.
Source of aigami, an
early organic blue colorant which fades easily.
On 9/3/14 we added this
photo which had been posted at Flickr by t-mizo.
Years ago I moved into a run down house in Kansas. The front yard was
covered with tiny blue flowers amid rich green leaves. I thought these
beautiful, but my new neighbor to the east informed me that these were
nothing more than pernicious weeds. I liked them anyway and remember
crushing some of the petals between my fingers. It made a slightly bluish color
which was easily washed off. This was the dayflower or spiderwort.
(Dayflowers are members of the spiderwort family.) I had no idea at the time
that the dayflower in my front yard was the same source as that of the
washed out colors I was looking at in late 18th century Japanese prints.
I didn't think
about these flowers much - it has been about twenty years since I lived
there - until recently when I was reading about Japanese kimonos and
the yūzen technique in particular. Yūzen (友禅 or ゆうぜん) is a
type of fabric design created with a rice paste resist method of painting or
dyes are impermanent and hence are referred to as 'fugitive'. Extremely
fugitive would be more accurate. They fade when exposed to light - maybe
even when they aren't. They can be washed out fairly easily too. That is why
they are used by yūzen masters in creating the designs for their
Originally a length
of silk would be stretched taut and then a light blue
design outline would be painted in freehand with aobana (青花 or あおばな) which is the dye
made from the dayflower. [It is referred to as
あいがみ) when used as a dye on early ukiyo-e.]
Outside of the pale blue line a thin rice paste resist line was then added.
According to one web site a diluted liquid from beans can be washed onto the
back of the cloth to remove the aobana lines. Other than that it
would disappear with an extended steaming process which would remove the
rice paste and set the painted colors.
According to Amanda
Mayer Stinchecum in Kosode: 16th-19th Century Textiles from the Nomura
Collection (published by the Japan Society and Kodansha International,
1984, pp. 202-3) "Juice of the petals contains delphinidin and can be
extracted with the morning dew in May and June." In the Nara
period [710 to 794 A.D.] fabrics were rubbed with the petals. "During Edo
[1615 to 1868 A.D.], liquid used to
outline yūzen designs for dyeing, outline washed out after dyeing."
There is a poem in the
Man'yōshū, an 8th century anthology, that makes an indirect
reference to the dayflower: "I wanted to dye my clothes with tuki-gusa by
rubbing it on them but, as it is said to be such a changeable colour, it is
a distressing thing for me." The reference to 'tuki-gasa' is tantamount
to 'tsuyukusa'. This poem is about the inconstancy of a lover's attachment
because, like the dye of this plant, it is beautiful to begin with, but
The dayflower is the Commelina communis. David Hibbett notes:
"Asiatic dayflower is a low-growing herbaceous plant that has elliptical
leaves and bilaterally symmetric (zygomorphic) flowers that open only for a
single day. At first glance, the flowers appear to have only two bright blue
'clawed' petals (with narrowly constricted bases), but there is a reduced,
whitish lower petal as well. The stamens are dimorphic; the upper stamens
are bright yellow, and infertile, while the lower stamens are fertile and
less conspicuous. The flowers protrude from a clasping, heart-shaped bract."
Hibbett added: As the common name implies, C. communis originates in
Asia. This species was described in 1753 by Linnaeus in Species Plantarum..."
Later he notes: "According to Fernald (1950, p. 392), Linnaeus named the
genus Commelina after three Dutch botanists, all brothers in the family
Commelin. Two of the brothers, Jan (1629-1692) and Kaspar (1667-1731), were
highly successful, while the third ‘”died before accomplishing anything in
Botany”‘. The name thus alludes to the two showy petals (representing Jan
and Kaspar) and the one reduced petal (the unnamed, less successful
brother). Funny guy, that Linnaeus."
Hibbett ends by saysing:
"The Asiatic dayflower is a tiny little herb, often maligned as a 'weed',
that is easily overlooked. Nonetheless, close inspection, either in the
field or through a literature search, is deeply rewarding. The zygomorphic
flowers with their dimorphic stamens (and the variation in floral form
throughout the genus) provide an elegant example of how flowers evolve in
response to pollinator behavior (and vice versa). The plant is one tough
survivor; it crossed the oceans centuries ago and is now firmly established
throughout Asia, Europe and North America, with reports in South America,
Africa, and Australia... Its beautiful blue pigments enlivened 19th century
Japanese woodblock prints, and have been studied more recently by chemists
using x-ray crystallography and other techniques. Commelina communis shows
that even mundane weeds have a lot to teach us."
Izumi Kyōka (泉鏡花: 1873-1939), one of the great figures of 20th century
Japanese literature, wrote a death poem. It reads:
I will miss
And the flowering knotweed.
As he was lying on his
deathbed, Suzu, his companion of many years, "...she prayed at his side even
through the night. From the backyard she picked a single sprig of dayflower
(tsuyukusa) and brought it to his bed. The plant with its small blue
flowers delighted Kyōka, who repeatedly praised its beauty. He picked up a
pencil and scribbled a haiku in his notebook by his bedside." These were his
last words. Quote from: The Similitude of Blossoms: A Critical Biography
of Izumi Kyōka (1873-1939) by Charles Shirō Inouye, p. 336.