A MILLION QUESTIONS
TWO MILLION MYSTERIES
Port Townsend, Washington
The new wallpaper on this page is shown courtesy of
Shu Suehiro at
It is a glorious and
rich site for anyone interested in plants both Japanese and otherwise.
J thru Kakure-gasa
TERMS FOUND ON THIS
Jakago, Janome, Janome-gasa,
Japanese Woodblock Prints: Artists,
Publishers and Masterworks 1680-1900,
Jigoku,Jigoku Dayū, Jimbaori,
Jingasa, Jinmenju, Jiraiya,
Jiraiya Goketsu Dan, Jisei, Jitsubushi, Jizai kagi,
Jōi, Jōkamachi, Jūnihitoe, Jūnishi,
Jūō, Juzu, Kabuki-za, Kaede, Kaemon,
Kagami, Kagami biraki, Kagami mochi,Kagaribi,
Kago, Kagome, Kaguyama,
Kai awase, Kaiba,
Kaimyō, Kaji, Kaji no ha, Kaishi,
Kake soba, Kaki, Kakihan, Kaki shibu,
Kakitsubata and Kakure-gasa
蛇籠, 蛇の目, 蛇の目傘, 地獄, 地獄太夫,
辞世, 地潰し, 自在鉤,
攘夷, 城下町, 十二単衣, 十二支,
楓, 替紋, 鏡,
鏡開き, 鏡餅, 篝火, 蔭間, 蜻蛉,
香具山, 貝合せ, 海馬, 戒名, 懐紙,
梶, 梶の葉, 懸合せ,
掛香, 掛軸, 掛物,
柿, 書判, 柿渋,
杜若 and 隠れ笠
じゃかご, じゃのめ, じゃのめがさ, じごく, じごくだゆう,
じらいやごうけつだん, じせい, じつぶし,
じょうい, じょうかまち, じゅうにひとえ, じゅうにし,
かがりび, かげま, かげろう, かご, かごめ, かぐやま,
かいあわせ, かいば, かいみょう, かいし,
かじ, かじのは, かけかわせ, かけごう, かけじく,
One more note about this
page and all of the others on this site:
If two or more sources are
cited they may be completely contradictory.
I have made no attempt to
referee these differences, but have simply
repeated them for your
edification or use. Quote anything you find here
at your own risk and with a
whole lot of salt.
Click on the yellow
to go to linked
containers which are filled with stones to help prevent erosion along
breakwaters, jetties or river banks.
The image to the
left above shows a detail of a Kuniyoshi bijin wearing a robe decorated with
gabions. The one to the left below was sent to us by our generous
contributor Eikei (英渓). It is a detail from a print by Sadahide
(貞秀) ca. 1847-8
showing a fellow sitting by a river lined with jakago. Thanks Eikei!
Bull's eye or snake's
eye motif used as a family crest or mon. It is also the name of a type of
umbrella which has that design as part of its structure. At the left are
just two of the variations of this motif.
The kanji character
蛇 by itself means 'snake'.
"This motif was
originally called tsurumaki, or 'bowstring spool,' because of its
resemblance to the device on which warriors wound their bowstrings when the
bow was unstrung. The spool was generally hung from the warrior's waist from
his large sword by a loop run through the hole in the spool center."
Quote from: The Elements of Japanese Design,
by John W. Dower, published by Weatherhill, 1991, p. 134.
"...it is not
surprising varied according to gender, rank and even geography... The
janome (snake's-eye) type with black, brown, or indigo paper and a white
center band came into fashion around the Genroku era (1688-1703); orange and
red janome seem to have become popular much later. Among men, the
janome was rarely used by the samurai class but was favored by monks and
doctors. In the Osaka-Kyoto region, janome were used by women of
samurai status; their umbrellas, always held by female servants, had long
sticks and large covers. In Edo, however, even if a woman had two or three
servants, she carried her own umbrella, and the stick was accordingly
Quote from: Rain
and Snow: The Umbrella in Japanese Art, by Julia Meech, published by
Japan Society Inc., 1993, p. 52.
The image to the
left above is a detail from a print by Kiyochika from 1876 while the one
below is from a print by Kunisada showing an actor carrying a janome
from the 1830s.
If I were a person who pulled
his hair out when frustrated I would have been bald as a bowling ball years
ago. Personally I find Japanese names confounding and almost completely
inexplicable and worthy of self-abuse, but... Anyway, I was reading the
preface to Japanese Names by Koop and Inada, which was first
published in 1923, where they stated that "...the existing literature on the
subject is confined to a few short articles in such works as Chamberlain's Things Japanese..." So, I went there and the information listed below
is based initially on that source.
1. "The kabane [姓 or かばね]
or sei [姓 or せい], a very ancient and aristocratic sort of family
name.... The grand old names of Minamoto, Fujiwara,
Tachibana, are kabane." (Chamberlain, p. 345) From the 5th thru
the 7th or 8th century there were two types of family names: uji for
clans and kabane. The kabane were divided into various
subgroups each indicating either the persons direct relationship to the
imperial family or services performed for it. These titles were hereditary.
"One of the most important
foundations of the Ritsuryō
state was laid in 684 by the Emperor Tenmu. Tenmu instituted an eight-rank kabane (hereditary title of nobility) system, which reorganized the
tradition court rank system by granting a higher degree of status to those uji who had made useful contributions to the throne." (On
Understanding Japanese Religion, by Joseph Mitsuo Kitagawa, p. 110) The
emperor could have abolished the kabane system and replaced it with
something else, but instead he kept it without punishing his enemies while
using it to benefit his supporters.
One other note to keep in mind:
If you don't actually know the family, person or place being named - using
kanji characters - and you haven't memorized it through frequent contact
then the chances are you might not get it right after all. There are far too
many possibilities on how to pronounce it. Sometimes the variations are
overwhelming. However, "It is true that, since some reading and characters
are much more commonly used in names than others, it is usually possible to
arrive at a likely reading when faced with a name written in characters..."
vol. 5, entry by P. G. O'Neill, p. 324.)
2. "The uji or myōji
[苗字 or 名字 or みょうじ], our surname,... dating... only from medieval times. Most
names of this class were originally nothing more than the names of
localities in which the families bearing them resided, as Yama-moto,
'foot of the mountain;' Ta-naka, 'among the rice-fields;' Matsu-mura,
'pine-tree village.' Down to about 1870, surnames were borne only by persons
of gentle birth..."
3. "The zokumyō [俗名 or
ぞくみょう] or tsūshō, literally, 'common name.' It corresponds closely to
our Christian name. Very often such names end in tarō for an eldest
son, in jirō for the second, in saburō for the third, and so
on down to jūrō for a tenth son, as Gentarō, Tsunajirō,
etc.; or else these distinctive determinations are used alone without any
prefix. They mean respectively 'big male,' 'second male,' 'third male,' and
so on. Other zokumyō, end in emon, suke, nojō, bei, - words formerly serving to designate certain official posts,
but now quite obsolete in their original acceptation."
4. "The nanori [名乗り or
なのり] or jitsumyō, that is, 'true name,' also corresponding to our
Christian name.... Until recently the jitsumyō had a certain
importance attached to it and a mystery enshrouding it. It is used only on
solemn occasions, especially in combination with the kabane, as Fujiwara
no Yoritsugu (no = 'of'). Since the revolution of 1868, there has
been a tendency to let [the kabane] retreat into the background, to
make [the uji] equivalent to the European surname, and to assimilate
[the zokumyō and jitsumyō], both being employed
indiscrimanately as equivalents of the European Christian name. If a man
keeps [his zokumyō], he drops [his jitsumyō], and vice
5. "The yōmyō [幼名 or
ようみょう], or 'infant name.' Formerly all boys had a temporary name of this
sort, which was only dropped, and the jitsumyō assumed at the age of
fifteen. Thus the child might have been Tarō or Kikunosuke,
while the young man became Hajime or Tamotsu.
Chamberlain notes that the
next list of name types, while still in use when he wrote the book, were not
as important as the first group discussed above.
6. "The azana [字 or
あざな], traslated 'nickname,' for want of a better equivalent." Jim Breen
gives as one of the definitions a "Chinese courtesy name..." Chamberlain
notes that the azana is of a higher order than the Western nickname
and basically is used respectfully.
This next entry is probably
the most important one for our purposes.
7. "The gō [号 or ごう].
'Pseudonym' is the nearest English equivalent, but almost every Japanese of
a literary or artistic bent has one. Indeed he may have several. Some of the
Japanese names most familiar to the foreign ears are merely such pseudonyms
assumed and dropped at will, for instance Hokusai (who had
half-a-dozen others), Ōkyo, and Bakin. Authors and painters
are in the habit of giving fanciful names to their residences, and then they
themselves are called after their residences, as Bashō-an ('banana
8. "The haimyō or
gagō [雅号 or がごう]. These are but varieties of the gō , adopted by
comic poets and by painters."
Number 9 is important too
for our understanding of many Japanese actor prints.
9. The geimyō [芸名
or げいめい] is a stage name. For example, "...Ichikawa Danjūrō
was not the real name, but only the hereditary 'artistic name,' of the most
celebrated of modern Japanese actors. To his friends in private life he was
Mr. Horikoshi Shū (Horikoji being the myōji, No. 2; Shū the
jitsumyō, No. 4)."
10. "The okuri-na [諡 or おくりな], or
posthumous honorific appellation of exalted personages. These are the names
by which all of the Mikados are known to history, - names which they never
bore during their lifetime. Jimmu Tennō and Jingō Kō gō are examples."
11. The hōmyo
[法名 or ほうみょう] is a posthumous Buddhist name. We already have an entry on
this form on
our Hil thru Hor index/glossary page.
Chamberlain notes that the
Japanese friend who helped him compile this list never considered mentioning
the names for women. This Chamberlain adds as No. 12.
12. The yobi-na [呼び名 or
よびな] or women's names. [Most dictionaries I have consulted translate this as
a 'given' or 'common' name and say nothing about gender.] "These are
generally taken from some flower or other natural object, or else from some
virtue, or from something associated with good luck, and are proceeded
by..." the honorific 'O'.
According to Kawaoka Takeharu there was a practice in part of Hiroshima
Prefecture until the middle of the Meiji period for a young man to change
his name prior to marriage. "Boys got their names changed at the age of
fifteen..." on the 15th day of the 1st month. Family members drank sacred
rice wine on this occasion.
Japanese Woodblock Prints: Artists, Publishers and Masterworks 1680-1900
This volume by Andreas Marks is
a valuable addition to the library of any serious collector of Japanese
woodblock prints. Or, for that matter, for any scholar or dilettante
interested in ukiyo-e in general. The one thing which we find the most
interesting is the section on 49 different publishers. We know of no other
volume in English with so much information on this important area of
research. Stephen Addis in the foreword to this book wrote that Marks
"...provides a much-needed recognition of the vital role played by
publishers." We second that opinion completely.
The first half of the book
is devoted to 50 individual artists and the second half to individual
publishers. Both are in chronological order.
The Japanese name for
Separately the kanji characters mean earth or ground 地 plus prison 獄.
Jigoku was also the name given to the lowest class of unlicensed
prostitutes - or they were called
jigoku onna, hell women.
The Hell Courtesan, a
possibly fictitious figure whose encounters with the Zen monk Ikkyū became
the subject of novels, plays and fine art pieces.
A formal surcoat worn
over armor either for ceremonial purposes or else on the battlefield.
Originally designed for more practical use as protection against foul
weather and the cold, but in time these jackets became elaborate status
symbols often decorated with a family crest or mon with strong design which
could be seen clearly at some distance.
An 1888 pocket dictionary
defines the jingasa as "A kind of large hard hat worn by soldiers, or
In volume 3 of the
Russo-Japanese War series from 1905 it say on page 909: "The introduction of
fire-arms brought about great changes in the defensive armour of the
warriors, iron plates taking the place of leather. An iron plate helmet,
painted with lacquer, and called Jingasa, came into frequent use..."
Stephen Turnbull in his The
Most Daring Raid of the Samurai (p. 25) notes: "Tools would have been
wielded by non-combatant laborers who, unlikely to have been wearing armor,
may well have been issued with a jingasa." Their coats would bear the
crest or mon of their master.
Foot soldiers wearing their
The Encyclopedia of
Nineteenth-Century Land Warfare: An Illustrated World View by Byron Farwell
gives a more expansive description: "A low-crowned Japanese war helmet of
wood or metal, padded on the inside. Padded flaps hang down at the sides."
The Hutchinson Dictionary
of Ancient and Medieval Warfare (p. 168) adds that this "...conical hat,
usually made of iron in single or multiple plates, but sometimes of
lacquered wood, worn in battle by the
from the Muromachi period (1333-1568) onwards. In later periods it was worn
The image to the left was posted at commons.wikimedia.org by
The human-faced tree: According
to Yokai Attack: The Japanese Monster Survival Guide by Hiroko Yoda
and Matt Alt (published by Kodansha, 2008 pp. 114-117) this tree grows to a
height of 6 to 35 feet. It is extremely rare and grows mainly in mountainous
valleys. Its fruit takes the form of human heads which can speak either
singly or as a chorus. If they aren't talking they giggle. The fruit is said
to have a somewhat citric, tangy flavor, but as the authors of Yokai Attack
muse "...we wonder what kind of person would bite into the head of a tiny
human..." They offer no threat and actually are rather gentle. In fact, they
are so easily amused that sometimes they laugh themselves right off the
tree. ¶ Their lore may have reached Japan from China having originated in
India and Persia. First mentioned in Japanese literature in 1712 in the
Wakan Sansaizue (和漢三才図会 or わかんさんさいずえ). It may even be related to the Waqwaq
tree of Arabian Nights fame where the fruit were said to bear a great
resemblance to human faces.
On 12/21/08 our great
contributor 英渓 (Eikei) sent us an important passage from "Journey to the
West" translated by Anthony C. Yu (University of Chicago Press, 1977, vol.
1, p. 264). It takes place on the Mountain of Longevity where there is the
Taoist Temple of Five Villages which is the abode of an immortal. Unique to
this temple is an extraordinary tree [and here is where it relates to the
Japanese jimmenju]: "This treasure was called grass of the reverted
cinnabar, or the ginseng fruit. It took three thousand years for the plant
to bloom, another three thousand years to bear fruit, and still another
three thousand years before they ripened. All in all, it would be nearly ten
thousand years before they could be eaten, and even after such a long time,
there would be only thirty such fruits. The shape of the fruit was exactly
that of a newborn infant not yet three days old, complete with the four
limbs and the fives senses,. If a man had the good fortune of even smelling
the fruit, he would live for three hundred and sixty years; if he ate one,
he would reach his forty-seven thousandth year."
If you are unfamiliar with
"Journey to the West" you may know it through its shorter version, Monkey,
translated by Arthur Waley. Both are based on the sixteenth century
Hsi-yu Chi (西遊記) by Wu Ch'êng-ên (吳承恩).
"The image of a man with a
toad, the man being without the usual leafy collar of the sennin, may be an
illustration for the novel of Santō
Kyōden (1731-1816) [sic] whereof Jiraya [sic] is the hero. The young man,
though of noble birth, became a robber through lack of funds. One night
having found shelter in the house of an old woman, he tried to rob her. But
he was overcome by the woman who had changed into an old man and turned out
to be a powerful wizard, the Spirit of the Toad. His victor apparently
seeing some good in the robber treated him kindly and instructed him in his
own art, pledging Jiraya at the same time henceforward to be a protector of
the poor and oppressed. So instead of a robber our hero became indeed a
hero. But there was a sorcerer of evil repute, who was still stronger than
he. Now one day Jiraya met a pretty girl and fell in love with her. They
married and as a dowry she brought him a very valuable and useful gift for
she was a pupil of the Spirit of the Snail. Together these two performed
many good deeds and overcame and killed Orochimaru, Python-fellow, the son
of the Spirit of the Snake. One day as the young couple had taken lodgings
in a temple, the Spirit of the Snake penetrated there and spat on Jiraya,
poisoning him. In all haste the priest of the temple sent a messenger to
India on the back of a
tengu... to fetch an antidote. The
messenger was back in time to save Jiraya's life and now in league with the
Spirit of the Snail, Jiraya killed the Spirit of the Snake." (Quote from: The Animal in Far Eastern Art... by T.
Volker, p. 169)
"Possibly this novel of
Kyōden's was inspired by the popular belief incorporated into the triad
called: 'San sukumi', three that fascinate each other: the toad, the
snake and the snail. The snake eats the toad, the toad eats the snail but
the slime of the snail (the same is said of human spittle), means death to
the snake." (Ibid.)
Kyōden's (山東京伝 or さんとうきょうでん) actual dates are 1761-1831.
Jiraiya Goketsu Dan
the Hero Jiraiya"
as elsewhere in the world, it has become customary to write a will in
preparation for one's death. But Japanese culture is probably the only one
in the world in which a 'farewell poem to life' (jisei) took root and
Japanese Death Poems: Written by Zen Monks and Haiku Poets on the Verge of
Death, compiled with an introduction and commentary by Yoel Hoffmann,
Charles E. Tuttle Company, 1986, p. 27.
"Poems written just
before death appear in the most ancient Japanese sources, including the
Kojiki, the Man'yoshu, and the Kokinshu."
Ibid., p. 44.
"At the moment of
death, say followers of the Jodo sects of Buddhism, the dying person is
greeted either by Amida, the Buddha of Everlasting Light, or by Kannon, the
Bodhisattva of Compassion and Love. Anyone who call the name of Buddha
before dying is reborn in the Pure Land in the West."
Ibid., p. 66.
There is a
or memorial print by Kunichika dedicated to his master Kunisada. It shows
several poems by devoted pupils. However, "The poem on the far left is
Kunisada's death verse (jisei), signed 'The Old Man Toyokuni, aged
seventy-nine,' in which the artist expresses his faith in Amida (Mida), the
lord of the Western Paradise..."
Kunisada's World, by Sebastian Izzard, Japan Society, Inc., 1993, cat.
#100, p. 189.
On 9/11/08 we added the image
of the cover of the book devoted to this subject compiled by Yoel Hoffmann.
A background printed
in a single color. This may involve layering of different colors or of the
same color, but the end product leaves a relatively flat printed ground.
The image to the
left is a detail from a Yoshikawa Kanpō (1894-1979: 吉川観方 or よしかわ・かんぽう) print.
Pot hook: An height adjustable
mechanism for hanging a pot over a fire traditionally found in most Japanese
homes from those of peasants on up. There are two different kanji characters
used for kagi. One means 'hook' [鉤] and the other means 'hanger'.
Some of you may wonder why I add such esoteric subjects as the jizai kagi.
Well, I'll tell you. In this case the jizai kagi appears in two
separate woodblock printings I know. The large one to the left is from an
ehon illustrated by Sadahide. The two examples given above are from the left
panel of a Kunitsuru diptych. If an image appears and if anyone out there
was wondering what it might represent or be then that is the reason we are
trying to cover these elements in such an encyclopedic way. You may not
agree on this approach, but basically if it is out there I want to know what
it is and why.
Patron saint of
children and travelers: Jizō is the Japanese name for the bodhisattva
Ksitigarbha. There are ten variant manifestations of Jizō, perhaps more. One
is to oversee the safety of souls who have died until the coming of the next
Buddha. "...there is also a Jizo who is especially named Ko-sodate-Jizo
[子育て地蔵 or こそだてじぞう] (children raising Jizo). It is said that when
children die, they go to the banks of the Sanzu River, but as they play
there, devils come to disturb them. Then Jizo arrives to protect these
This is an
interesting contrast to the Christian belief that everyone is born into
original sin and has to be baptized for the soul to be properly saved.
The image to the left is from a tattoo on the back of someone who wishes to remain absolutely
anonymous. I want to thank the Jizō wearer for having submitted
this photo to
this site. We needed a good example for these pages. Thanks Anonymous! (Note
the children gathered around the feet of this bodhisattva frolicking within
the petals of the lotus flower.)
Some people believe that the
oracle of Delphi made her pronouncements after inhaling fumes rising from a
fissure in the ground. Perhaps she did. Over the years I have visited both
Yellowstone and Mt. Lassen. Both are incredibly active geological sites and
both have pools of superheated water some of which are predominantly
sulphuric. Both have bubbling mudpots and hissing fumeroles. Both have
suffered cataclysmic/global altering explosions. Well, the area around Mt.
Osore (恐山 or おそれざん) where the statue of Jizō shown above is found has
many great similarities to our two national parks. Located at the
northernmost part of Honshū, not far from the strait which separates it from
Hokkaidō the traditional home of the Ainu. This region stinks of sulphur. It
is seismically active: today is 9/12/08 and yesterday there was a 6.9 quake
not far away. Of course, this area differs in certain ways from its sister
regions in Wyoming and California, but overall the similarities are greater
than the differences. ¶ Traditionally the Ainu viewed the Mt. Osore area as
a spiritual center. (New Agers still make pilgrimages to Mt. Shasta
which is a near neighbor to Lassen.) The greenish-yellow lake, Usoriyama,
shows almost no signs of life. Almost nothing can live there. In fact, it
only supports one hardy, extremely hardy, species of fish, the ugei or
big-scaled redfin. There are almost no birds in this part of the Shimokita
Peninsula (下北半島 or しもきたはんとう) - Aomori Prefecture (青森県 or あおもりけん).
Rhododendrons grow there, but they do well in highly acidic soils. However,
most plants if they did take seed would wilt if they did survive
germination. Loud black crows flock here and that alone would give the sense
of pending doom and darkness considering there are rocky barren stretches
everywhere. ¶ After the arrival of Buddhism at Mt. Osore the same kind of
syncretism took place as it did everywhere else in Japan. (Remember that
until they were forced apart in the 19th century Buddhist Temples and Shinto
shrines were often indiscernible.) Osorezan can be translated as the
Mountain of Dread and the Buddhist adapted to this. By the 9th century they
had built a temple there, Entsūji (円通寺 or えんつうじ). There is also the Bodaiji
Temple (菩提寺? or ぼだいじ) which is close to the Lake of Blood, the Mountain of
Swords, and a dry river bed which many believed was the mythical Sai no
Kawara (西の河原 or さいのかわら) or River Bed of Souls over which the living cross to
the land of the dead. ¶ The souls of children who die young, before their
parents populate this area. The living make pilgrimages here in efforts to
assuage the suffering of these souls and obviously to mitigate that of their
own. They leave toys and candy treats as offerings. This is why Jizō
plays such a prominent role. He is traditionally the greatest protector of
these youthful' souls. ¶
Working alongside the Jizōs
are the itako (いたこ) or blind - generally unmarried female - shamans
who are able to contact the souls of the dead. For centuries parents would
give over young daughters for itako training, but since the end of
World War II child protection laws has caused their numbers to dwindle.
Primarily, itako exercise kuchiyose (口寄せ or くちよせ): they summon
the spirits of the dead who communicate with the living using the itako
as a mouthpiece." (Shinto in History, by John Breen and Mark Teeuwen,
p. 190) For the Jizō
holiday in August itako gather at Osorezan and perform their craft
for three days. "It appears that throughout the history of their profession,
itako have performed, in particular, memorial rites for the souls of aborted
foetuses, mizuko kuyō, and these rites also aim at helping mothers
come to terms with their feelings of guilt, their distress, and their
anxieties." (Ibid., p. 191)
"The scene is reminiscent of a Hitchcock movie as clouds of steam rise
from hissing vents in the ground and flocks of ravens swarm over shrines
dotted across the barren slopes. The shrines are surrounded with garishly
coloured toys and children's whirligigs spin in the breeze. Paths lead down
to the leaden waters of the lake that has formed in the caldera. The small
statues of Jizō, the Buddhist deity in charge of the spirits of departed
children, are covered with bibs and sweets. ¶ Whatever your beliefs, it
would be hard to deny that there is a strong, sinister feeling here of
otherworldly power." (Japan, entry by Robert Strauss, Lonely Planet
Publications, 1991, pp. 274-5)
The photo of the statue of
Jizō above was placed in the public domain by Jpatokal. For this we are
extremely grateful. The original is posted at
The karmic mirror in hell which
will reflect all of the bad things a person has done after the age of 7.
Expel the Barbarians - There
were several efforts among the Japanese to rid themselves of foreign
influences during the Edo period. In 1825 the bakufu promulgated an
act to renew these efforts: "[the foreign ships] have become steadily more
unruly, and moreover, seem to be propagating their wicked religion among our
people. This situation plainly cannot be left to itself. ¶ All Southern
Barbarians and Westerners... worship Christianity, that wicked cult
prohibited in our land. Henceforth, whenever a foreign ship is sighted
approaching any point on our coast, all persons on hand should fire on and
drive it off." Quoted from: International Relations and Identity: A
Dialogical Approach by Xavier Guillaume, p. 79.
Xavier Guillaume also says:
"It is ironic that a term aiming at enforcing jōi was inspired by
'Western learning' (rangaku)."
Ibid., p. 80.
Castle town: Traditionally
places like Fuchū, Hikone, Hirosaki, Iida, Kanazawa, Matsue, Matsumoto,
Nagoya, Okazaki, Takashima and Toda, et al. were laid out in a hierarchical pattern
with the castle keep or tenshukaku (天守閣 or てんしゅかく) at the center.
Early on Edo, another jōkamachi, did not follow this pattern. In
fact, originally it was just the opposite with the most important vassals
located some distance from the center, i.e., the castle. Here is was meant
more as a defensive positioning meant to protect the Kantō plain.
Above is Matsumoto castle
posted at commons.wikimedia.org by Σ64.
In The Economic Emergence
of Modern Japan E. Sydney Crawcour said on p. 18: "In each domain, the
castle town acted as the commercial as well as the administrative center and
performed at the domain level the functions analogous to those that Osaka
and Edo performed at the national level. Licensed or 'privileged' merchants
acted as agents for the collection, distribution, import, and export of
goods from the domain, financed and often managed domain enterprises, and
backed and managed domain note issues (hansatsu)."
To the left is a photo of
Kanazawa castle posted at commons.wikimedia.org by Fg2. "Kanazawa is considered to be
one of the few successful cases in which a castle town was developed into a
large local city and yet has maintained it original historical character."
Unlike most other major Japanese cities Kanazawa had survived World War II
relatively unscathed by comparison. While this was considered to be a
handicap preventing it recreation as a modern city in time it came to be
viewed as an asset since so much cultural heritage had been bombed into
oblivion elsewhere. (Source and quote from: International Urban Planning
Settings: Lessons of Success, Volume 12, p. 312) Kanazawa gained its
wealth from being at the center of the largest rice growing region of Japan.
It also had the largest population of any jōkamachi during the
Edo period and was said to have 120,000 inhabitants at the beginning of the
Meiji Restoration. By 2000 the population was only 100,000 in the older,
preserved parts of the city, but the general area hold more than 4 times
that number. (Ibid., p. 314)
In the 16th and 17th
centuries castle towns were being developed along militaristic lines. "Most
of Japan's modern cities began as towns built around a daimyo's castle. A
castle town or jokamachi symbol of the regime's military and
political authority was the main feature in the development of the cities in
Japan during this period. The castle was the centre of each domain's defence
and government. The town that grew around them became the focus of dominant
commerce activities in developing the area. There was rapid growth of cities
in this era due to the growth in trade. There were about 100 cities built
over a period of 50 years." ¶ "The Castle Town of Kanazawa in Ishikawa
Prefecture is one of the best-known surviving examples of an old castle
town. Maeda's family, the wealthiest daimyo in the land during that era
owned a castle that was built on the confluence of two rivers. The town was
laid out around the Saikawa and Asanogawa rivers." (Quoted from: An
Introduction to Japanese City Planning by Chin Siong Ho, p. 29)
meant 'town below the castle'.
During the Tokugawa period
samurai gravitated to these castle towns and operated as menials or
bureaucrats, but not very good ones. This kept them dependent on the local
daimyos and out of trouble.
Carl Mosk in his Japanese
Industrial History: Technology, Urbanization, and Economic Growth (p.
38) gives a very succinct and precise description of the jōkamachi:
"The most important facet of the building boom outside of the core was the
proliferation of castle towns, jōkamachi, that served as the
residential headquarters for daimyō and their retainers. The number
of such castle towns fluctuated somewhat during the early modern period,
since the number of fiefs changed from time to time, varying between about
240 and 295 in number. In many cases, these castle towns were erected upon a
pre-Tokugawa foundation. Originally, many had been staked out as market
towns, their sites reflecting natural advantages as transportation nodes.
Under the federal structure that developed with bakufu rule, castle
towns took on a rich combination of administrative and commercial functions.
None were formally called cities - the Chinese character for city, shi,
was not applied to any conurbations until the 1880s - nor were they under
some form of municipal government rule as were some cities in the West at
this time. Indeed, under the standard administrative model of the bakuhan
system, a castle town was administered by one (or several) machi bugyō,
municipal administrators appointed by the ruler of the domain governing the
castle town. In practice, neighborhood (chō) associations played an
active role in managing urban affairs, organizing religious events, and
assembling and recruiting fire brigades to fight conflagrations. In sum, the
construction of castle towns created a network of regional administrative
cum commercial nodes connected by roads, rivers, canals, and seacoast, so
that core was linked to periphery, and points in the periphery were linked
to one another." ¶ The construction of castle towns and roads spurred a
'massive building boom'. Relocating samurai retainers to the jōkamachi
put physical distance between them and rural peasants and farmers which
brought an end to "protracted squabbling over water rights, and the
arbitrary diversion of water brought from rivers along irrigation canals by
aggressive villagers riding roughshod over their neighboring villages."
Water was all important - especially for the production of rice which was
the measure of one's wealth. (Ibid. p. 14) [The part about relocating
samurai to the castle towns does not always jibe with what we have read
elsewhere, but tends to be the general consensus among historians and
"In 1950, about 50% of all
Japanese cities (Hokkaidō excluded) were former castle towns." (Quoted from:
Modern Japanese Society, Part 5, Volume 9, p. 282)
"Throughout Japan, though in
differing degree in different areas, the civil wars of the fifteenth and
sixteenth centuries had begun the process of detaching samurai from the
land. The need to have an army more or less on call had led the daimyo to
insist that their followers live round a central stronghold. This samurai
community became in many cases the nucleus of a castle town. When peace was
restored under the Tokugawa, the practice continued, partly because of its
administrative convenience, partly because it strengthened a lord's
authority over his men. As a result the majority of samurai became townsmen,
resident in or around the castle, except when they were sent to serve in
Edo... or were employed as officials in a rural area." (Quoted from: The
Meiji Restoration by William Beasley, p. 21)
"During the years of Nobunaga
and Hideyoshi, small castle towns sprang up like toadstools, along with a
variety of port and highway towns - some ninety new towns appearing between
1572 and 1590 alone - and after 1600 most of them continued to grow. (Quoted
from: Early Modern Japan by Conrad Totman, p. 63)
"At the beginning of the 16th
century most of the major cities of modern Japan were completely
undeveloped, but during the three centuries from 1570 to 1850, the castle
town, or jōkamachi, assumed an importance out of all proportion
to other types of urban communities." (Quoted from: Max Weber in Asian
Studies by Andreas Buss, p. 91)
"An important change took place
in rural life as the new barons established themselves in their fortified
castles. They grew more and more averse to letting their more important
vassals and followers reside on their own estates, where they might plot
mischief. Consequently they obliged such important people to reside near the
castle, leaving their estates to be managed by stewards. This action
resulted in the growth of castle towns (jōka-machi) and the
separation of the warrior from the farmer. Hitherto there had been no clear
distinction between the two classes, since a warrior might be a farmer
living on is own land. But now the professional soldier lived an urban
life, and rural society developed on new lines, with an elaborate
organization of village life and marked social distinctions between the
headman and the plain cultivator." (Qutoed from: A History of Japan,
1334-1615 by George Sansom, p. 256)
"Within any castle town, some
wards were made up almost entirely of a small group of elite merchants who
supplied certain crucial military or prized luxury goods to the daimyo,
items such as munitions or arms, rice in bulk shipments, silks and other
quality clothing materials, or cakes and saké. The daimyo would grant
charters to these men, vouching that he would buy their products and thus
coining the generic term, gōyō shōnin, purveyors to the lord, that
defined this distinctive group. In addition to the charters, the lord often
bestowed on these merchants tax exemptions and residential housing plots
within the better wards, generally known as the hommachi, that were
close to the castle and among the first laid out, locations that had the
additional advantage of being near the wealthier samurai customers. ¶ Also
given preferential treatment were the forwarding agents, the men who
procured packhorses, arranged coolie labor, and otherwise managed the
details of the daimyo's export trade. Typically they received residential
plots in the center of the commercial section, an area that then became
known as Temmamachi, literally the post horse ward. Similarly, each daimyo
required the services of certain kinds of artisans - swordsmiths, armorers,
carpenters, stone cutters, plasterers, and tatami makers - to entice them to
his domain he would offer guarantees of employment, tax exemptions, and
housing that was conveniently situated close to the castle." People of
similar skills would be clustered together and often those areas would take
on the name of their trades and some of these names continue in use today.
(Source and quote from: The Japanese Economy in the Tokugawa Era,
1600-1868, p. 142-3)
""twelve-layered" formal robe worn by high ranking women of the Heian court.
Also referred to as a karaginumo (唐衣裳 or からぎぬも).
The 12 signs of the
zodiac. These include the rat, ox, tiger, hare, dragon, snake, horse, goat,
monkey, cock, dog and boar.
In Chinese Symbolism and Art Motifs by C.A.S. Williams (Castle Books,
1974 edition, p. 412) it states: "The first explicit mention of the practice
of denoting years by the names of animals... is found in the history of the
T'ang dynasty, where it is recorded that an envoy from the nation of the...
(Kirghis?) spoke of events occurring in the year of the hare, or of the
horse. It was probably not until the era of the Mongol ascendancy in China
that the usage became popular; but according to Chao I... -A.D. 1727-
traces of a knowledge of this method of computation may be detected in
literature at different intervals as far back as the period of the Han
dynasty, or second century A.D."
Later Williams notes that
"Professor Chavannes has written a learned article to prove that the group
known as the Twelve Animals was borrowed fromt eh Turks, and was used in
China as early as the first century of the Christian era..."
"The figure of 360, which we recognize as the number of degrees in the
circle, is almost as good as a Babylonian signature. By the early fifth
century B C the Babylonians had the makings of a co-ordinate system, for
they had by then begun their division of the zodiac into twelve 'signs' of
equal length, naming them after the constellations or important star
(Quote from: The Norton
History of Astronomy and Cosmology, by John North, W. W. Norton &
Company, 1995, p. 39)
Joseph Needham in The
Shorter Science and Civilisation in China: 2 (Cambridge University
Press, 1981, p. 111) states: "It has been suggested that both systems [the
Chinese and the Indian-Arabic] were derived from a Babylonian 'lunar-zodiac'
which was received by all Asian peoples. Certainly in the library of the
Assyrian king Assurbanipal (668 to 612 B.C.) at Ninevah, there are some
cueiform tablets whose contents date from the second millennium B.C. Thees
show three concentric circles, divided into 12 sectors."
Ritual suicide - "sacrifice
one's own life in order to follow one's lord to the land of shades".
According to an ancient Chinese source it was banned in 646, but had to be
outlawed several times later through the centuries. "Despite this, many
samurai and servants killed themselves when their master or lord died. The
last example of junshi occurred when General Nogi and his wife
committed suicide when Emperor Meiji died in 1912. Throughout the Edo
period, it was common practice for samurai close to a lord to commit
seppuku when the lord died. Junshi was considered a giri (moral
obligation). But many daimyo forbade it and, in 1683, the rules in the
Buke-shohatto banned it again." Quoted from: Japan
Encyclopedia by Louis Frédéric, p. 437.
This information differs
somewhat with that given by Marius Jansen in his The Making of Modern Japan
(pp. 43-44): "At the time of [the shogun Iemitsu's] death five of his senior
aides accompanied him in ritual suicide (junshi), a procedure that
was later, in 1663, forbidden by the bakufu."
The Ten Kings are the ten
judges of the dead.
A Buddhist roasary:
"Buddhist rosaries, have 108 beads, symbolizing the 108 worldly sins. One
moves each bead in prayer to be saved from committing the particular evil it
stands for." This originally accompanied the prayer namu-amidabutsu
or "May the soul rest in peace." For practical purposes there are shorter
strings of 54, 27 or even as few as 14 beads. The example shown to the left
appears to be one of those. A shortcut to going through all the beads
individually can be made simply by holding them or by clasping them between
hands held together in prayer in various configurations. In this case the
longer strands are frequently wound around the hand for convenience sake.
"Juzu beads are
generally made of iron, copper and gold alloy, crystal, coral, amber, glass,
various kinds of hard and fragrant wood and many other materials." Kyoto was
known for the production of these items and some of them could be quite
Source and quote
from: Mock Joya's Things Japanese, p. 514.
Last night, February 15, 2006, I was reading a passage in a novel which
helped reinforce one of the points of information made above: "To keep count
of the thousands of paces, Huree Chunder's experience had shown him nothing
more valuable than a rosary of eighty-one or a hundred and eight beads, for
'it was divisible and sub-divisible into many multiples and sub-multiples."
Quote from: Kim, by
Rudyard Kipling, Penguin Books, 1989, p. 211.
A major kabuki
theater in Tokyo
Maple leaf: John W.
Dower in his The Elements of Japanese Design (p. 62) notes
"...the word for maple, is itself suggestive - the pronunciation puns on
'frog's foot,' which is how the ancients apparently described the leaf,
while the single ideograph used is made up of the elements for tree and
wind, conveying a rather gentle image of rustling foliage."
An alternate or
substitute crest meant specifically for use by only one actor. For example,
a crane was used by Utaemon III while Danjūrō VII's was a peony and Kikunojō
V's was a chrysanthemum. For a more general use see our entry on mon.
This is the Japanese
word for mirror, but it is often used in a metaphorical or more expansive
sense in reference to print titles.
It might be best if
you read the entry on kagami mochi below first.
The kagami biraki
is the ritual breaking of the mochi created for the New Year's
celebration. It is allowed to harden in the open air for a number of days.
Due to a natural process of desiccation this stack of rice cakes often
shrinks somewhat and cracks too. Then on different days across Japan -
starting around January 11th and in the following days - based on local
custom the kagami mochi is broken up either by hand or by hammer. It
would seem that cutting the stack might well be considered a bad choice
among traditionalists. The crumbled pieces can then be put into several
different types of soups and ingested in the hope that this will bring good
luck and protection throughout the new year.
The graphic to the
left was created especially for us by David Wilcox. Thanks David! I think it
looks great and I'm picky.
A "...big fat round
rice cake in the traditional shape of a mirror (kagami). Two or three
of these cakes, of different sizes, one on top of the other, form the basis
of the New Year decoration in homes." Topped with bitter orange (daidai),
dried persimmons (kaki), kelp (konbu) or any one of an
assortment of other traditional items. "On January 11 the cakes are usually
cut up and served in zōni [mochi in soup] or shiruko [a
Quotes from: A
Dictionary of Japanese Food: Ingredients and Culture, by Richard
Hosking, Charles E. Tuttle Company, 1996, p. 67.
Now here is the
rub: In a web site devoted to children kagami mochi is discussed with
definite clarity and it states that this now hardened New Year's decoration
is definitely not cut because that has such bad connotations. Instead they
say that it is broken up by hand or smashed with a hammer - as though that
wouldn't have bad connotations too. This ceremony is referred to as
kagami biraki (鏡開き or かがみびらき).
Now here is another
rub: When looking up the definition of kagami biraki the very
credible sites I checked referred to it as the cutting up of the mochi.
They all can't be right. Moral: Never trust your sources including this one.
On New Year's Eve I
received an e-mail from C. S. complimenting me my work on this web site and
wishing me a happy holidays. C. S. had found the site through a search on
Google on mochi pounding. For that reason I am dedicating this first
index/glossary entry for 2006 to C. S. Keep them coming please. Thanks C.
The graphic to the left was
created especially for this site by David Wilcox.
A bonfire, watch fire
or a fire on a tripod stand used in night fishing. The detail to the left is
from a print by Eisen illustrating cormorant fishing. See our entry on
ukai for further information.
The rod used to
hold the fiery basket is called a kagaribo (篝火棒? or かがりび.ぼう).
Kagema is an interesting term. The first
character, 蔭, means 'shadow' while the second part, 間, means 'place' or
'space'. Timon Screech in his The Shogun's Painted Culture: Fear and
Creativity in the Japanese States, 1760-1829 gives a different reading:
"...kabuki was the hub of male prostitution. Attractive actors supplemented
their earnings by accepting paid engagements with fans. Full-time rent-boys
took the title 'stagehands' (kagema) to excuse their hanging about at night:
the word literally meant 'in the shadow' (i.e., off-stage), but the pun was
obvious. (Published by Reaktion Books, 2000, p. 139) Kenkyusha's New
Japanese-English Dictionary (1931, p. 644) defines kagema as
There were special
assignation teahouses specializing in these young men. Stephen O. Murray in
his book Homosexualities discusses these places. "The increasingly
rich and dominant class of merchants (townsmen; chonin) became
patrons of theater and of impecunious youth. and the ideal in boys onstage
and off became decidedly more effeminate. By the late seventeenth century,
male houses of prostitution with effeminate boys existed alongside female
houses, especially in the larger cities. There were at least fourteen wards
(machi)... with kagema-jaya (catamite teahouses) during the
1760s... Three of these were in the theater quarters. The rest were adjacent
to shrines.... In fact, one house employed as many as one hundred boys for
sexual purposes..." (Homosexualities, University of Chicago Press,
2002, pp. 176-77)
In "Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan"
published by Asiatic Society of Japan in 1891 there is a long list of the
categories of citizens. Number 30 gives us "Jorō (prostitutes),
yarō (low fellows), and kagema (boys used for sodomy), are not to be
permitted in the mura, and if they arrive from other parts, houses
are not to be rented to them." (p. 182)
Mark McClelland contributed
an essay, Japanese Queerscapes: Global/Local Intersections on the
Internet, in Mobile Cultures. In it he summarizes the confusion
over translating Japanese terms into English: "Japan has a long tradition of
transgendered men offering sexual services to gender-normative men. In the
Tokugawa period (1600-1867), transgendered prostitutes (kagema), who
were often affilitated with kabuki theaters, would offer their services to
male members of the audience. In the Taishō (1912-1927) and early Shōwa
(1927-1989) periods this role seems to have been taken over by okama
[御竈 or おかま],
a slang term for the buttocks that, when applied to male homosexuals, means
something like the English 'queen.' In the 1960s and 1970s, the term
geiboi [ゲイボーイ] (gay boy) referred to cross-dressing male hustlers, and gei
(gay) still carries transgender connotations today. Giving fixed content to
any Japanese terminology dealing with sexual- or gender-nonconformist
individuals is problematic and producing English-language equivalents almost
impossible." (Quoted from: Mobile
Cultures: New Media in Queer Asia, Duke University Press, 2003, pp.
as well as kagema and iroko, were terms for male prostitutes
during the Edo period. Until the beginning of the Meiji period yakusha
kai, 'to buy an actor,' was an expression as familiar to the people as
kai, 'to buy a prostitute,' or geisha kai, 'to buy a geisha'...
Yoshizawa Ayame and Segawa Kikunojō, famous onnagata of the Genroku period,
has both started their career as iroko, as 'sexy boys.' Iroko
who also appeared on stage were called butaiko, 'stage boys.' In the
Kyōhō era (1716-36) the iroko reached the peak of their popularity
and, at least until the Tempō era in the middle of the nineteenth century,
every theater had its own group of iroko, who were managed either by
the 'owner' of the theater or popular actors, musicians, reciters, or by
theater teahouses or irokoya, brothels for male prostitutes..."
(Quoted from: "From Pleasure
to Leisure: Attempts at Decommercialization of Japanese Popular Theater",
by Annegret Bergmann, in The Culture of Japan as seen through its Leisure,
SUNY Press, 1998, pp. 254-55)
Stephen O. Murray in Pacific Homosexualities
(published by the Writers Club Press, 2002, p. 278-9) quotes a Japanese
scholar who tell us "...that after the end of the 18th century the kagema
mostly dressed themselves as girls, while during the Genroku period
(1688-1703) they had dressed themselves gracefully as beautiful young
Mayfly: Although the characters
蜻蛉 are pronounced kagerō they can also be pronounced
which is the word for dragon- and damselfly. On the other hand 蜉蝣 also
represents the mayfly (or ephemera) and is read as kagerō.
The image above of the (French)
mayfly, Ephemera danica, was
taken by Jean Pierre Hamon and
placed in the public domain at
The Genji mon or crest to the
left indicates chapter 52 of the Tale of Genji. At the beginning of
his masterful translation of The Tale of Genji (Vol. 2, published by
the Penguin Group, 2001, p. 1045) Royall Tyler tells us why this chapter is
("mayfly") hatches in
summer and dies only a few
later. The chapter title
from the chapter's closing
"There it is, just there, yet
ever beyond my reach, till I look once more,
and it is gone, the mayfly
never to be seen again."
The mayfly lives as an adult
only for a day or two during which the mate, molt and lay their eggs. They
appear in huge numbers at dusk in the early spring. The males swarm and when
a female flies into their group one male grabs her and they fly off
together. You know the rest of the story. One other unusual factor is
that their mouths are not completely formed so they do not eat.
Motoori Norinaga (1730-1801:
本居宣長 or もとおりのりなが) tells us that seimei (せいめい) is another term used
Source: The Poetics of
Motoori Norinaga: a Hermeneutical Journey, by Norinaga Motoori,
translated by Michael F. Marra, University of Hawaii Press, 2007, p. 63.
When written in kana,
i.e., かげろう, can refer to either the shimmering heat of summer (陽炎), the
mayfly (蜉蝣 or 蜻蛉) or something ephemeral. Because of these homonyms puns are
readily at hand.
In Essays in Idleness: The
Tsurezuregusa of Kenkō the author wrote: "If man were never to fade away
like the dews of Adashino, never to vanish like the smoke over Toribeyama,
but lingered on forever in the world, how things would lose their power to
move us! The most precious things in life is its uncertainty. Consider
living creatures - none live so long as man. The May fly waits not for the
evening, the summer cicada knows neither spring nor autumn. What a
wonderfully unhurried feeling it is to live even a single year in perfect
Quoted from: Essays in
Idleness: The Tsurezuregusa of Kenkō, by Yoshida Kenkō, translated by
Donald Keene, Columbia University Press, 1998, pp. 7-8. (These essays were
probably composed between 1330-32.)
Alfred Lord Tennyson (1809-92)
in his poem Maud deals with the same issues of transience:
For nature is one with rapine,
a harm no preacher can heal;
The Mayfly is torn by the swallow, the sparrow spear’d by the shrike,
And the whole little wood where I sit is a world of plunder and prey.
For the mere reason that I like
it I am going to quote the next stanza:
We are puppets, Man in his
pride, and Beauty fair in her flower;
Do we move ourselves, or are
moved by an unseen hand at a game
That pushes us off from the
board, and others ever succeed?
Ah yet, we cannot be kind to
each other here for an hour;
We whisper, and hint, and
chuckle, and grin at a brother’s shame;
However we brave it out, we men
are a little breed.
The mayfly in the West is also
known as a drake fly.
A palanquin or litter
used for travel. The roads were tamped down, but unpaved and wheeled
vehicles were not used generally prior to modernization starting in the late
19th century. One author noted that when Westerners started arriving in
Japan after Perry's visit they found these litters very uncomfortable. They
were too squat as carriers for the traveler to sit up straight and too short
for them to straighten their legs.
Kaempfer's History of Japan was published in London in 1727 and
remains a good source to this day. In a modern, 1999 edition published by
the University of Hawaii Press and edited by Beatrice M. Bodart-Bailey we
read on pages 245-6: "...I must mention that people also travel by kago,
or palanquins: this is the most elegant way to travel and is also used in
the cities for outings. Distinguished people use them for show, ordinary
people out of necessity. But there is a big difference between the
palanquins of eminent people and those of the lower orders. The former are
magnificent and precious structures and are especially referred to as
while the latter are far inferior and are called by the common name of
kago." Kaempfer makes a linguistic distinction between the two telling
us that the norimono is "a thing to sit in" while the kago is
a "basket to carry". "Both exist in so many different types and classes that
I cannot distinguish a bad norimono from a beautiful kago,
except for the pole on which it is carried." The kago uses a poor,
solid pole and the norimono uses a pole which is "...large, handsome
and solid." [For more on
norimono go to that entry on our
Mom thru N
In Yoshiwara: The
Nightless City by J. E. De Becker (pp. 18-19) there is a curious
reference to restrictions put on use of kago and norimono entering the
pleasure district of Edo. Up until the Meiji Restoration in 1868 only
physicians could ride in palanquins within the confines of licensed brothel
district. Why? Originally this quarter was located out in the boonies and I
can imagine that a person of some wealth might want to be carried there, but
why would they have to disembark upon arrival when doctors didn't have to?
It is not that the district was so large that walking its streets would be
irksome. This is a puzzler. If you have any ideas please contact me.
Many visitors to the New
Yoshiwara arrived via travel atop the Dike of Japan or Nihon zutsumi
(日本堤 or にほんづつみ). As you can see from the Hiroshige detail below there is a
lot of activity including several kago heading toward the Yoshiwara.
Each carried by two porters, with shades pulled down provide a degree of
privacy. On the right you can also see a single porter transporting an empty kago back to its starting point to pick up a new customer.
Judging from the De Becker's
citation above only a physician can be carried into the Yoshiwara itself.
Everyone else has to disembark outside of the Great Gate. However, there is
no way of knowing whether one of Hiroshige's kago is carrying a
doctor. Odds are that it isn't considering the size of the traffic flow. But
In footnote 17 on page 160 of Donald H. Shively's 'Sumptuary
Regulation and Status in Early Tokugawa Japan’ (Harvard Journal of Asiatic
Studies, Vol. 25, 1964 - 1965) it is noted that despite 17th century
prohibitions against Edo townsmen from riding in kago there were
exceptions: Originally anyone over the age of sixty could ride in one, but
later this was changed to fifty. Also, sick people and respectable women.
Buddhist and Shintō ceremonies were not to use elaborate kago.
pattern: It is remarkable the number
of patterns which have simple designs but are or were rife with symbolism to
the Japananese. For example, "the kagome, which derives its
name from the mesh of a woven basket and duplicates the Star of David, was
used because of its powers of exorcism..."
Quoted from: The Elements of Japanese Design,
by John W. Dower, published by Weatherhill, 1991, p. 33.
During the Edo period
(1600-1868) "...the number of Confucian motifs adopted [into heraldry] was
small, and interestingly, drawn almost exclusively from the more occult
aspects of this philosophy - the triangles and hexagrams of the I Ching..."
(Ibid., p. 32)
Mount Kagu: There is a
hill near Nara which has an incredible history both real and mystical.
Although it is truly low in elevation it is nevertheless considered one of
the "Three Mountains of Yamato" or Yamatosanzan along with Mt. Unebi
(畝傍 or うねび) and Mt. Miminashi (耳成 or みみなし). In the
(古事記 or こじき: 712) it is
the place where the sun goddess, Amaterasu (天照 or あまてらす), locks herself away
in a cave and cosmos is plunged into darkness. Eventually she was lured from
her seclusion by a raucous gathering of the gods. As soon as she emerged her
retreat is cut off and since then there has been light - at least part of
Gary L. Ebersole refers to
poems describing an empress
surveying her surroundings from within the palace grounds. "The four gates
of the palace open up on the four cardinal directions, each dominated by a
mountain that is praised for its beauty and special quality. Kagu-yama to
the East is the repository of the power of luxuriant growth or fertility;
Unebi to the West is the repository of youthful male virility. To the North
is Miminashi, handsome and god-like, and to the South is Yoshino, the locus
of so many memories and another sacred site."
Quoted from: Ritual Poetry
and the Politics of Death in Early Japan, by Gary L. Ebersole, Princeton
University Press, 1992, pp. 38-39.
I tried to find out just how
high Kaguyama is, but found contradictory information. However, Donald Keene
in A history of Japanese literature (Columbia University Press, 1999,
p. 96) tells us that "...the top of Mt. Kagu, a hill only 148 meters
That translates into 485.5'.
Now we know.
or かぐら), the sacred music and dance of Shinto, owes its origins to the
performance which drew Amaterasu out of her hiding place.
(榊 or さかき)or sacred tree which is used in Shinto rituals is also said to
have originated here. "Then Ame no Koyane... dug
up a five-hundred branched True Sakaki tree of the Heavenly Mt. Kagu. On its
upper branches they hung an august five-hundred string of Yasaka jewels. On
the middle branches they hung an eight-hand mirror.... On its lower branches
they hung blue soft offerings and white soft offerings. Then they recited
their liturgy together."
Quoted from: Nihongi:
Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.D. 697, by William
George Aston, published for the Japan Society, London, by Kegan Paul,
Trench, Trübner, 1896, pp. 42-44.
In footnote 2 on page 43
Aston tells us that Kaguyama is "...supposed to have a counterpart in
In footnote 1, p. 44 He
tells us that "These offerings are the originals of the Gohei, or strips of
paper wreathed round a wand, which are now seen set up in every Shinto
Later Aston translates a
passage which say that if offerings are made from platters and jars
fashioned from the soil of Mt. Kagu then the Emperor Jimmu's enemies "...may
be easily driven off." (Ibid., pp. 119-20)
The image shown above
is a detail from a print by Hokusai. It is meant to illustrate the second
poem of the Hyakunin Isshu (百人一首 or ひゃくにんいっしゅ) or "One Hundred Poets,
One Poem Each".
In Peter Morse's
Hokusai: One Hundred Poets published by George Braziller, Inc. in 1989
the translation of the poem by Jito Tenno is considerably different on two
points than the one by Joshua S. Mostow in his Pictures of the Heart: The
Hyakunin Isshu in Word and Image. This is understandable because of the
flexibility of the Japanese language and its frequent use of puns or
alternate readings. However, Morse's reading provides an additional layer of
information. He does not refer to this hill as Kaguyama, but rather calls it
the "Mount of Heaven's Perfume."
Mountain is a hill, southeast of Nara and visible from the city, supposedly
shaped like a perfume flask. (Nara was not yet the capital when the poem was
written.) It is said that in the summer the villagers spread their clothing
on the slopes to dry after the cold and damp winter storage.... The
poet...suggests that the immortals themselves have spread their summer
clothing on Mount Ama-no-kagu. There is also a humorous undertone of white
underclothing spread in the sun, still holding traces of winter perfume."
"In Japanese, ama is 'flax' as well as 'heaven'. Kagu is any
kind of smell, depending on its context. To peasant women, ama-no-kagu
did not mean 'heaven's perfume': it meant 'the stench of flax.'"
There is an entire category of ritua poems referred
to asl kunimi (国見 or くにみ) or land-viewing poems. These may have
originated at or with references to Kaguyama. "In this first entry,
kunimi is narratively associated with Kagu-yama, sacrifice, and sacral
kingship. Throughout the early centuries, Kagu-yama would continue to play a
central role in the Imperial cult." (Ebersole,
"Most scholars are in agreement, however, that
when... the Emperor Jomei is reported to have climbed Kagu-yama to perform
the kunimi ritual, he thereby symbolically identified himself with
Jimmu, the paradigmatic first sovereign, by occupying the same place."
In The Poetics of
Motoori Norinaga (translated by Michael F. Maara, University of
Hawaii Press, 2007, p. 79) is a translation of a poem by that great 18th
Heavenly Mount Kagu,
Will I ever get tired of looking at it
Even ten thousand years?
Oh, Heavenly Mount Kagu!
The shell matching
The game originated in the 12th century toward the end of the Heian period.
The insides of the half shells were covered in gold leaf and then painted
with miniatures from scenes of popular fiction like The Tale of Genji.
"In the game, the 'ground shells' (jigai) were drawn from their
hexagonal or octagonal bucket (kai oke) and placed, face up, in a
circle. The players then drew a 'drawing shell' (dashigai) from the
companion box, and attempted to find its match. The player who matched the
most shells won the game. The number of shell halves in the game - 360 -
equalled the number of days in a lunar year." Originally the game was called
kaiōi was played by young noblewomen during the Girl's and Chrysanthemum
festivals. Today it is most often played at New Year's. ¶ "Boxes to hold the
clam shells were beautifully decorated with felicitous motifs executed in
lacquer, gold leaf, and mother-of-pearl. Thick, tasseled silk chords, dyed a
celebratory red, secured the lids, and were tied in two types of elaborate
knots that distinguish the box holding the jigai from that holding
the dashigai." ¶ Because the two sides of each shell match they came
to represent conjugal fidelity and happiness. In time the 'ground shells'
stood for the male element - yang - and the 'drawing shells' the
female or yin element. By the Edo period it was common for a new
bride to bring a kai awase set with her to her new home. Even the
cloth coverings (fukusa) of wedding gifts were often decorated with
Source and quotes:
Flowers, Dragons and Pine Trees, by Mary Dusenberry, Carol Bier,
published by Hudson Hills, 2004, p. 248.
Dashigai is 出貝 or
だしがい; jigai is 地貝 or ぢがい; kai oke is 貝桶 or かいおけ; and 袱紗 or
Sea horses "...are
connected to folk beliefs about marriage, childbirth, and sexual potency....
Packets containing a pair of sea horses, one male and one female, were sold
as amulets to be held during childbirth. They are also said to aid in curing
Jewels of Japanese Printmaking: Surimono of the Bunka-Bunsei Era 1804-30
by Joan Mirviss and John Carpenter - cat. entry #10, p. 56.
A kaimyō is an
ordination name. The Buddhist name given at the
time of death and inscribed on the back of the
See also our entry on
"On the seventh day after
the death the dead person is given a kaimyō or posthumous name. This
is bestowed by the priest from the family temple (a fee is paid for this
service) and consists of a number of ideograms - the number and stature of
which generally reflects one's status in life, with young children using
having a shorter kaimyō than old men who have produced children and
grandchildren - which confer a new Buddhist identity on the dead person. By
so becoming a Buddhist, and by 'hearing' the teachings of Buddhism through
the reading of the scriptures by the priests, the dead person is popularly
considered to be enlightened." This name giving on the seventh day after
passing is meant to help the deceased entry into its next existence. It had
been the tradition to name a baby on the seventh day to ease its passage
into this realm. ¶ In the case of fire or flood the ihai is treated
the same as any living member of the household and aided in escaping the
danger. After 50 years when the active service to the ihai is over
many of these tablets are given over to the family's temple where they are
burned. After that the deceased joins "...the ranks of the ancestors, no
longer individually identified and venerated through ihai. "Some
households will keep a general memorial tablet made for all these unnamed
ancestors in the butsudan." (Sources and quotes: Religion in
Contemporary Japan by Ian Reader, pp. 91-2)
A packet of tissues:
Often used for wrapping sweets, while serving tea or for applying or
removing makeup. However, in the case of ukiyo prints featuring bijin or
beautiful women it often has a more salacious meaning fraught with sexual
also the term used to describe the paper on which tanka are written.
A tanka (短歌 or たんか) is a short poem of 31 syllables on 5 lines of
The Kaitai shinsho or 'A
New Book of Anatomy' is the Japanese translation of the work of
the European Johann Adam Kulmus (ヨハン. アダム.クルムス: 1689-1745). "It has long
been a commonplace of Japanese historiography that the publication of
Gempaku's (1733-1817) Kaitai Shinsho (1774) was a major turning point
in Japanese cultural history. As one of the earliest translations of a
Western anatomical text, Kaitai Shinsho represented the beginning of two
epoch-making developments. First and most directly Gempaku's work set in
motion the modern transformation of Japanese medicine, revealing not only
many anatomical structures hitherto unknown in traditional medicine, but
also and more fundamentally introducing the very notion of an anatomical
approach to the body - the idea of visual inspection in dissection as the
primary and most essential way of understanding the nature of the human
body. Second, and more generally, Kaitai Shinsho inspired the rise of
Dutch studies (Rangaku) in Japan, thus giving birth to one of the
most decisive influences shaping modern Japanese history, namely the study
of Western languages and science. ¶ Not surprisingly, Kaitai Shinsho has
been the subject of frequent and meticulous study. The tale of how Sugita
Gempaku [杉田玄白 of すぎたげんぱく: 1733-1817], a physician, with no training in
foreign languages, no foreign teachers, no dictionary, and no precedents to
rely on, managed through heroic struggles to produce a remarkably sound
translation of a Dutch medical text is a story that has fascinated
generations." Quoted from: Paths to Asian Medical Knowledge, essay by
Shigehisa Kuriyama, p. 21.
The image to the left is
from the 'frontispiece' of the first volume of this publication. Above is
another image from that book.
The Kaitai shinsho came about as a result of the dissection of an
executed criminal. One of the men who carried out the dissection was Ryōtaku
Maeno (前野良沢 or まえのりょうたく: 1723-1803): "...he took part in the dissection of
the body of a criminal after which the Ontleedkundige Tafelen
translation group was formed. They came together at Ryōtaku's house and, as
he had the best knowledge of the Dutch language, he had the general
supervision. The translation was published in 1774 under the title of
Kaitai shinsho ('New Writings on Dissection'). Ryōtaku thought the
publication premature and in the end did not wish his name to be mentioned
in the publication. He became somewhat estranged from the group." Quoted
from: Friends, Acquaintances, Pupils and Patrons, p. 98.
Nakagawa Jun'an (中川 淳庵 or なかがわ.じゅんあん: 1739-1786) was also present at the
dissection. (Ibid., p. 116.)
Odano Naotake (小田野直武 or おだの.なおたけ: 1749-80) was the illustrator of the Kaitai shinsho.
(Ibid., p. 121)
interesting word. Properly kaji (梶) translates as an oar or shaft and
not as mulberry. However, kaji no ki (かじの木) is a mulberry tree. But
then to confuse the matter even more kaji ki translates as a swordfish or
marlin. Where in the heck did that one come from. Someone out there reading
this must be a student of Japanese etymologies. If so, please contact me and
help me to understand this.
Kuwa (桑 or
くわ) is the term used for mulberry tree.
According to John
W. Dower in his The Elements of Japanese Design (p. 64) "In ancient
times the leaf of the kaji, or 'paper mulberry,' was used to make
receptacles for offerings of food at Shinto shrines... In the late Heian
period, court ladies used the leaf to write poems on... However, it was
predominantly the religious associations of the mulberry which lay behind
its fairly widespread adoption as a family emblem."
Both images shown here are from Flickr. The one of the whole leaf was posted
by Vivian Evans and the detail showing a close up was put there by mpclemens.
The mixing of two colors to
make a third like red plus blue to make purple.
There appear to be several
technical terms which hardly appear anywhere - and I do mean anywhere. We
found this one in "Ukiyoe: Some
Aspects of Japanese Classical Picture Prints", by Shigeyoshi Mihara,
Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 6, No. 1/2, 1943, p. 260.
Hiroshi Yoshida in his
Japanese Woodblock Printing (1939, p. 118) did mention this technique:
"...the block may be printed in different colours so that they may overlap.
Such overlapping is known as kake-awase. In this case one must be especially
careful of the colours used so that the result of the overlapping may be
what the artist desires." Later on page 119 Yoshida added: "Just a word
further regarding kake-awase. If there are a large number of figures in
varicoloured dresses, first blue may be printed; then some of the figures
may be printed in red, and, some in brown, leaving out some and overlapping
the different colours on others. Thus six different colours may be obtained
by only three impressions. If a part can be shaded, the variation becomes
Frank Brinkley in his
Japan: Its History Arts and Literature (published by T.C. & E. C. Jack,
vol. 7, 1904, pp. 48-9 - 1908 edition) states that "Torii Kiyomitsu [ca.
1735 - 85], now produced beautiful prints, in which secondary colours were
developed by superposition of primary, so that, while still using only three
blocks, red, blue, yellow, purple, and green were obtained, which, with the
black and white of the print, gave a scheme of seven colours. At this point
(about 1760) Harunobu appeared."
A bag of aromatic
incense worn by a courtesan meant to mask body odors. It is also called a
nioi-bukuro (匂い袋 or においおぶくろ).
The Passionate Art
of Kitagawa Utamaro, published by the British Museum Press, London,
1995, Text volume, p. 146.
Years ago I couldn't
help but notice that particularly offensive odor of someone who had tried to
mask their failure to bathe frequently by the continuous applications of
deodorants. Old Spice, Mitchum, Right Guard, Irish Spring - a soap so good
you wouldn't need a deodorant - were all products promoted for greater
social acceptability. In fact, one deodorant ran a commercial on television
showing a sexy hunk who stated something like "I didn't use my deodorant
yesterday and I may not today" with the obvious inference that their product
was so good that... No sweat!
Renaissance and Enlightened Europe and later the upper classes - who wore
tons of clothes and didn't bathe very often themselves - always wore
or carried expensive and elaborately tooled pomanders or vinaigrettes so
they could hold them to their noses whenever confronted by the rabble. These
containers held the most aromatic herbs known to man at the time and were
meant to make life just a little more bearable. Obviously the Japanese
kake-gō were meant to do the same.
A hanging scroll
A hanging scroll or
vertical oban sized woodblock prints made in imitation of a hanging scroll's
painting. The latter were often mounted like paintings.
Soba in hot broth
Alfred Koehn said: "An ancient [Chinese] poem says that the Persimmon's
colour is more beautiful than golden robes, and its flavour sweeter than
pure jade juice."
In an article in Japanese by Tanaka Shinjiro, Folk Customs Concerning
Persimmons, it says:
Persimmons are used in
religious ceremonies to produce magic, ensure success for lovers, help those
with little talent, in rites of passage, during weddings and funerals. In
some areas persimmons and rice ears are placed on family altars to guarantee
successful harvests. Women would take their children and persimmons along
when they would visit their clan gods.
Persimmon have sometimes been called 神柿
or 'fruit or gift of the gods'. Takada says that
means 'the gift of wisdom' to the Buddhists.
Supposedly in some places a girl would take a persimmon tree with her when
she would get married. In more recent times it was the fruit, either fresh
or dried, according to the season, which would accompany the bride.
It was believed that the redness of the fruit would keep demons at bay.
Persimmon trees were planted to keep fires away. Wood from the tree should
never be used for fuel because it would drive the user crazy. Pregnant women
should never walk under a persimmon tree. Falls from persimmon trees cause
death or serious injuries. When a person who is seriously ill dreams of
eating a persimmon it means death is near.
There is an odd reference in the Review of Reviews published by the Nanzan
Institute for Religion and Culture which states: "Children are minutely
warned not to touch dumplings when stealing persimons [sic] in other
to as kaō (花押 or かおう) they were "Personal marks or signs that
developed from signatures and were used in place of signatures on a vast
range of documents, public and private. The word kaō is a compound of
two Chinese characters: ka, or 'flower,' and ō,
to impress one's
signature; together they convey the sense of 'a beautiful, flowerlike
signature'." Kakihan literally means 'written seal.'
Source and quote
vol. 4, entry by Noburu Hiraga, p. 155.
print artists of the 18th, 19th and 20th century often used these seals, but
not always and not always in ways that are easily decipherable.
The image to the
left is a detail from a Shoson print. To see the full image click on the
number to the right.
Persimmon juice used
as an astringent
Used in the
katagami or paper stencil for
dye-resist fabric production and for water proofing of karibari
(仮張り?) which is a wooden lattice frame upon which silk, scrolls and papers
are laid out to dry. Today karibari are being used by modern
When persimmon juice is used to
dye cloth the end product is called shibuzome (渋染 or しぶそめ).
According to Jack Rucinski in his article A Japanese Burlesque: Nise
Monogatari in the Monumenta Nipponica, (Vol. 30, No. 1, 1975, p. 8) this
was "...a color used for coarse clothing worn by those such as menials in
Iris: A sweet little
volume could be written about the iris, the Iris laevigata, in Japan. Merrily Baird in her Symbols
of Japan: Thematic Motifs in Art and Design (pp. 84-5) notes that there
are three types of irises, the ayame (菖蒲 or あやめ), hanashobu
(花菖蒲 or はなしょうぶ) and kakitsuba, found in Japan and one very iris-like
plant, the shobu (菖蒲 or しょうぶ). The kakitsubata "...although
cultivated, is best known...as a wild plant growing in damp areas and
alongside bodies of fresh water. It is the iris most celebrated in Japanese
poetry and art, being combined with plank bridges in a design, known as
yatsuhashi, that alludes to the Tales of Ise literary classic...
The plant also serves as a family crest."
The image to the
left is one of a number of variations on the iris theme which were used for
family crests or mons. The photograph shown below was posted at
commons.wikimedia.org by Dennis L. Lindwall.
The character for the
kakitsubata in China was also meant as an allusion to the swallow because
the flower itself was thought to be reminiscent of that bird in flight:
"...la première, term chinois signifiant «petite hirondelle», ferait
référence à la similitude existant entre la forme d'une fleur d'iris et
celle d'une hirondelle en vol..." (Quoted from: Les plantes du Man.yo-shu by
Claude Pérrony, p. 83) [Note that most modern references to the swallow pair
it with the willow while the iris is linked to the cuckoo during the fifth
moon. In China the swallow was also joined to apricots or with the wisteria,
but that is for another time and another place.]
In Chinese Art: A Guide to
Motifs and Visual Imagery Patricia Welch says on page 26 "Irises (one of
the most common varieties is Iris tectorum, popularly known as the
'kite-tail flower'... are not a common subject in Chinese paintings (it is
the Japanese who have made the iris a popular subject)..." On page 77 Welch
notes that the kingfisher is often paired with the lotus or the iris as
symbolic of summer.
One old source, The Open
Court, vol. 18 from 1904, said that irises were banned from Japanese
weddings because of their purple color. We'll look into this and get back to
you if we find the reason for this. We're not sure this is correct.
There is a Nō play entitled
Kakitsubata. A priest visit a place famous for its water irises. A woman
comes up to the priest and they talk. She tells him that this place is
famous for the kakitsubata and recounts the poem written by Ariwara
no Narihira (在姑平 or ありわらのなりひら: 825-880) who visited this place while longing
for his lover he left behind in Kyōto. The woman offers the priest a place
to sleep for the night. That evening she appears before him and admits that
she is the spirit of the kakitsubata and that Narihira was actually
the incarnation of a bodhisattva.
Here is the poem. Notice that
the first syllable of each line in the Japanese sounds out the word kakitsubata.
(Note in this case ba becomes ha, but basically they are the
Tsuma shi areba
Tabi o shi zo omou
I have a beloved wife
Familiar as the skirt
Of a well-worn robe
And so this distant journey
Fills my heart with grief
In China it was a custom to
consume wine with irises in it on the 5th day of the 5th month. Irises
attached to door frames or gates was believed to give protection in times of
A hat of
invisibility. One of the symbolic lucky treasures.
Often seen along with other treasures as decorations on ceramics,
fabrics and other items.